MEZOLITHIC (8000 – 6000 BC) Thanks to the shalter discovered in Košice – Barca, at Svetlá III, we know that the people of the Gravettiene culture lived in slightly deepened huts of an irregular shape of smaller dimensions and tent constructions.
MEZOLITHIC The end of the Ice Age heralded the retreat of the glaciers and the climaticchanges connected with it. As a result of warming up in the Post Ice Age the natural environment changed as well. The human being had to adjust himself, too. In the short period of the Middle Stone Age (the Mezolithic age 8 000 – 6 000 B.C.) after the extinction or departure of cool loving animals, hunting of amaller animals and birds, and fishing became more important. The manufacturing of stone tools adjusted to this. The arrowheads often had the shape of small triangles, like those found in the small oval hut in Košice – Barca together with stone knives.
MEZOLITHIC Small knives – micro blades – were used for the manufacturing of combined hunting weapons so they were fixed into grooves on the edge of the bone head by resin. So a tool resembling the harpoon appeared. There is evidence of its usage from the Medvedia cave near Ružín. The harpoon with fixed microblades was found stabbed into the chest bone of a brown bear skeleton.
The beginning of matriarchy They built wooden boats, oars, and sledges. Gathering of wild fruits and other products was very important in Mezolith, too. The more settled life style was associated the beginning of matriarchy. Society of that time consisted of small groups (20 -50 people), comprising only of a few families. Their settlements were formed by the riversides of lakes and rivers full of fish. At the end of Mesolithic time people were accompanied by dogs. The first burial sites prove about faith in after life.
NEOLITHIC (6000 – 3500 BC) Around 6 000 BC in the history of making ended the period of the unproductive economy which had existed for hundreds of thousands of years and began the Early Stone Age (the Neolithic age, 6 000 – 1 900 BC). When the Neolitic age began the first periode of experiments to master the nature started. It is characterized by the growing of cultured plants,breeding annimals,development of the first craft,among them the manufacturing of ceramics above all, and the constraction of relatively sturdy house.
NEOLITHIC Prvotnopospolná spoločnosť stupňuje zápas o podmanenie prírody. Zdroje pre uspokojenie svojich potrieb nachádza v pestovaní kultúrnych plodín a chove domácich zvierat. Spolu z novými výrobnými nástrojmi, pracovnými postupmi, objavením sa hrnčiarstva, výrobou textílií, budovaním trvácnejších osád i ďalšími objavmi sa podstatne urýchľuje vývoj našich území
NEOLITHIC At the beginning of the 5th millenium B.C.the new population from the Balkan penninsula also settled the fertile soils of the riverbed of the Hornad in Košice basin.The oldest settlements were investigated in Košice-Barca. They belong to the culture of people with Eastern Linear Pottery who penetrated from the south intu this area.
NEOLITHIC The most numerous finds in the Košice basin are the clay burnt pottery decorated with grooves. Stone tools continued to be manufactured for work. Other types of stone materials and new technicques of manufacturing-cutting,drilling, grinding –were also used. New types of tools, small axes, wedges and hammers, resulted..
Way of living In the settlements of the first agrarians we can find proofs of growing more two-seed and less one-seed wheat. In later periods barley, peas, lentils. The surplus of grain was stored in big clay vessels or in storage pits made for this purpose in the vicinity of the shelters.Thanks to preserved animal bones we know that they bred mainly goats and sheep, later cattle and pigs were added.
Way of living The civilization of the first agrarians developed into Bukk culture. The finds belong to the aesthetic manifestations of the Neolithic era and its ceramic products provide some of the most beautiful evidence of skill of prehistoric potters.
Way of living The settlements of the Bukk culture are mostly found on the fertile terraces of rivers and brooks. A post construction covered with sticks and clay formed the basis of 4m x 8m shelters. In the vicinity the storage pits and clay pits were located. The shelter was inhabited by one family.Together with other families in the settlements they formed the kin. It is estimate that one settlement had 40-70 inhabitants probably all shared the more demanding work associated with preparing (burning, grubbing) and cultivating the soil, harvesting the crops or building houses (Košice – Barca, Šaca, Myslava, Seňa, Čečejovce, Peder). The people of the Bukk culture inhabited the caves of the Slovakian karst as well (the big Jasov cave and the Skeleton cave in Zádielske Dvorníky.
Spiritual life The manifestation of spiritual life is represented by finds of female clay stattues. They worked up leather and textiles-shown by finds of bone and clay tools like needles, awls,weaver weights and spindles. They devoted great attention to the manufacturing of applied and decorative objects, including bone combs, rings, shell jewellery and clay pendant necklaces. The Bukk culture suddenly vanished in 3500 BC.
ENEOLITHIC (3000 – 1900 BC) The Eneolith is the last period of the Stone age. The older phase of the Eneolith is connected with development of the Polgar culture groups, the middle of Eneolith with the Badenian culture and at its end the groups of young Eneolith cultural complex appears.
The bearers of the Tiszapolgar group penetrated to our area from south and very quickly settled in the Eastern lowland and in a small measure also in Košice valley. Their settlements were created on the terraces and at the top of small hills, near the water flows, from time to time the settlements were founded also on the highland terraces. They built elevated pile dwellings 10-12 meters long and 4 meters wide, sometimes also smaller oval dwellings with fireplace and storage or dumping pit in its neighborhood. ENEOLITHIC
Agriculture is separated from manufacturing at that time. The role of man supersedes the role of woman. Making stone tools, pottery, and weaving and baskets production is typical for this period. The bowls on legs and without legs, vases, cups, and pots are dominant in pottery. The tools chopped from stone are still used but copper tools, weapons and golden pendants appear. The copper products include axes, awls and spiral bracelets ENEOLITHIC
The badenian culture is spreaded already in whole Slovakia in the period of the middle Eneolith. The bearer of this culture raised barley, peas and millet. Beside traditional agriculture and cattle breeding the pastoralism takes more important place. It is assumed that they had already used animals for pulling purposes. ENEOLITHIC
In dwelling buildings prevailed simple oval earthen houses. In the settlements were used stoves for pottery. In ceramics dominated jugs, cups, conical bowls, dishes consisting from two pieces, and pots for storage. Making of cooper jewelry and arms is in regression. In eastern Slovakia we have only a few habitats (Kosice-barca,Zadielske Dvorniky). ENEOLITHIC
The badenian culture terminated suddenly in Slovak area and was followed by the young eneolitic cultural complex which settlements were protected by ditches. Around the year 1900 BC The eneolithic era ended and The Bronze Age started. ENEOLITHIC