Presentation on theme: "Paleolithic Era Through Bronze Age. Early Migrations of People Historians think that people started in Africa about 90,000 years ago Moved to Asia, then."— Presentation transcript:
Paleolithic Era Through Bronze Age
Early Migrations of People Historians think that people started in Africa about 90,000 years ago Moved to Asia, then to North America Also moved to Europe and Australia Group in Northern North America settled farther South and West and became “Native Americans” Native Americans = Indigenous People
Crossing the Bering Strait (Beringa Land Bridge) 17,000 years ago (during last Ice Age) Ice increased and sea levels fell, people first migrated from Asia to America. These people were Nomadic Hunters following big game from Siberia. Crossed the Bering Strait Between current day Siberia (Russia) and Alaska Eventually spread farther South and farther West
During Paleolithic Era (2.6 Million Years ago until about 8,000 BC) most were H&G Tools Wood, Bone, Animal skins, Stone Fire Used for Protection, Warmth, Cooking Food Weapons Stone, Bone (Spearheads) Language Very basic language skills
People who crossed Bering Strait were Hunters and Gatherers Men hunted for Animals (Large game) Women gathered berries and fruits Stayed in small groups, small families Food supply wasn’t large enough to support big group Had to constantly move around to follow game and find new food Not a stable food supply
As Civilization developed, new ways of getting food were discovered. Where it was warm = Farming (Agricultural Revolution Where there was land for grazing, Pastoral Nomads began herding animals Both Farming and Herding happened around the same time, but depended on environment
Pastoral society relies on a pasture. It is one that uses the domestication of animals for its survival. The first pastoral societies emerged between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago, when some hunting and gathering groups began to capture, breed, and tend species of wild animals they previously had hunted. Why does this sound better than H&G? What other things could they have done to get food?
This strategy has been adopted by many peoples living in deserts or other regions that are not suited to the cultivation of plants, but which contain animals--such as goats or sheep—that can be readily tamed and used as a food source. Many pastoral societies still exist in the modern world, particularly in Africa and in the Middle East. In some areas crop cultivation was severely limited because of insufficient rainfall, too short a growing season, or mountainous terrain.
Also known as “Neolithic revolution” Occurred about 10,000 BC to 5,000 BC Happened in different parts of the world at different times Agriculture = Farming Growing of crops and the raising of animals Where did it happen? Near Water Warm Climate Good Soil Enough Precipitation
Benefits that arose from Agriculture Seasonal Harvests Specialized Crops / Division of Labor Biggest Benefit : More stable food supply More food means Families could support more Children Population Grew! Families could stay in the same place Started forming small villages People could save extra food (Surplus) Use surplus for trade or emergency
Farming developed first in the Middle East, in an arc of territory running from present-day Turkey to Iraq and Israel (Fertile Crescent) Barley and wild wheat were abundant What is it near???
Farming then spread to parts of India, north Africa, and Europe. Agriculture spread much later to Africa. Agriculture was invented separately in the Americas much later (around 5000 B.C.E.) Followed by Southeast Asia and Japan And then Central Asia
Areas of Independent Development: 1. SW Asia (wheat, pea, olive, sheep, goat) 2. China & SE Asia (rice, millet, pig) 3. Americas (corn, beans, potato, llama) Areas of Agriculture Through Diffusion: 1. Europe 2. West & Sub-Saharan Africa (?) 3. Indus River Valley (rice cultivation)
The need for storage facilities for grains and seeds prompted the development of basket-making and pottery. Agricultural needs also encouraged certain kinds of science, supporting the human desire to learn more about weather or flooding. Discovery of metal tools (4000 B.C.E.) in the Middle East Copper was the first metal, followed by bronze – a more resilient metal.
High starch diets slowly allow Sedentary populations to grow. First plow invented c.6000BCE; crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE. Pop. grows from 5-8 million to million. Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization
Towns require social differentiation: metal workers, pottery workers, farmers, soldiers, religious and political leaders. (POSSIBLE B/C FOOD SURPLUSES!) Served as trade centers for the area; specialized in the production of certain unique crafts Beginnings of social stratification (class)
Catal Huyuk – 7000 BCEJerico – 7000 BCE
How did the environment favor one life style or another? Hunters and Gatherers Must be large game to hunt, crops to pick, but not a stable supply Pastoral Nomads Could settle in more challenging climates Agrarian (Farming) Society Needed water for irrigation, precipitation and a good growing season