Presentation on theme: "Created by Mr. Hemmert Robertsdale Elementary Fourth Grade"— Presentation transcript:
1Created by Mr. Hemmert Robertsdale Elementary Fourth Grade Prehistoric IndiansCreated by Mr. HemmertRobertsdale ElementaryFourth Grade
2ALCOS2. Describe cultures, governments, and economies of prehistoric and historic Native Americans in Alabama.Examples: prehistoric Native Americans—Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian; historic Native Americans—Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek2.1 Identifying locations of prehistoric and historic Native Americans in Alabama.2.2 Describing types of prehistoric life in Alabama.Examples: plants, animals, people2.3 Identifying roles of archaeologists and paleontologists.
3Important VocabularyGeographers – scientists who study the land and how it affects the people who live on it
4Important Vocabularyarchaeologist – scientist who studies tools and other items left behind by past generations to learn about how they lived
5Important VocabularyPaleontologists - the study of prehistoric life, including organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments
6Important VocabularyInhabitants – people who live in a particular place
8Important VocabularyMiddens – garbage dumps used by Archaic Indians
9IntroductionAnthropologists and archaeologists tell us that there were four distinct Indian cultures during the prehistoric period in Alabama.These four groups are: Paleo Indians, Archaic Indians, Woodland Indians, and the Mississippian Indians.
10Paleo IndiansThe Paleo Indians moved into Alabama about 12,000 years ago while following herds of now-extinct food animals.They were hunters and gatherers.
11Paleo Indians - Shelters Where did the Paleo Indians live?The Paleo Indians looked for shelter that was both safe and close to food sources.They made camps beneath rock overhangs and caves.One camp site was at Russell Cave in Jackson County in the northeastern corner of the state. A second is at Dust Cave in the cliffs overlooking the Tennessee Rive in northwestern Alabama.
14Paleo Indians - Foods What did the Paleo Indians eat? Small family groups of bands of these early people cooperated to hunt game and to gather wild plant foods like berries and nuts from the forest.The Paleo Indians hunted large prehistoric animals like mastodons and woolly mammoths.
15Paleo Indians - ToolsPaleo Indians sharpened stones into spear points and scrapers.Most of the objects that the Paleo Indians used may not be known because only stone objects can survive long enough to be found by archaeologists after hundreds of thousands of years.
16Paleo Indians - Art The Paleo Indians were excellent artists. In some parts of north Alabama archaeologists have found petroglyphs carved into rocks.These ancient symbols offer clues about religious beliefs of the state’s original inhabitants.
21The Archaic IndiansThe Archaic Indians lived in Alabama 10,000 – 3,500 years ago.The changes of the Paleo period meant that although the Archaic people were still hunters and gatherers, they made use of other resources too.
22Archaic Indians - Shelter The Archaic Indians lived near rivers during the summer. During the winter, they lived near forests.
23Archaic IndiansArchaic Indians lived near rivers during the summer because they used fish and shellfish as a food source.In the winter time, they would move to the forest to collect nuts and to hunt game.
24Archaic Indians - Middens Middens are garbage dumps used by Archaic Indians.Archeologists have learned about what the Archaic Indians ate by studying these garbage dumps. They noticed many muscle shells.
25Archaic Indians - Tools Archaic people developed many tools that made life easier.They used the atlatl, or a throwing stick, for hunting.The atlatl is shaped like a jointed spear tipped with a stone weight and a hook, the atlatl allowed a hunter to aim much better and throw much farther. The atlatl improved hunting.
26The Archaic Indians – Art Archaic period people made bowls and other items from stone.
27Woodland IndiansThe Woodland period in Alabama was characterized by increasing cultural complexity and population growth and began about 1000 BC and lasted until about AD 1000.The Woodland period started about 3,000 to 2,000 years ago.
28Woodland Indians - Shelter Woodland people tended to live in small villages, perhaps in deer-hide tents.They stayed in one place for at least a season.
29Woodland Indians – Hunting and Farming The Woodland Indians were excellent hunters and farmers.The Woodland Indians invented the bow and arrow which improved their hunting abilities.With both farming and hunting, the Woodland Indians had a more dependable and healthier diet than their predecessors. As a result, their population increased.
30Woodland Indians - Diet Some of the foods that the Woodland Indians ate were:Maize (corn), squash, and beans, nuts, wild animals, and other wild foods.
31Woodland Indians - ArtThe Woodland Indians were also excellent artists. Archaeologists have found numerous forms of pottery from the Woodland period.Using clay that they eventually mixed with a temper (crushed limestone or other material that made the clay stronger), they shaped bowls and other containers by hand.They made bowls, containers, cooking utensils, effigies, and hunting tools.Turn to page 16 and 17 to see some of the pottery that the Woodland Indians made.
32Woodland Indians – Burial Mounds In many of the Woodland Indian sites in Alabama, archaeologists have found many dome-shaped burial mounds.In these burial mounds, archaeologists have found remains of individuals buried with grade goods such as bowls, spear points, jewelry made from shell or bone, and other special objects.
33Woodland Indians – Society In the Archaic period, people seemed to be equals in society. During the Woodland period, society was becoming more complex as more people lived close together for longer periods of time.Leaders began to take charge, and burials show that some people were more important than others.
34Summary Group Time Period Shelter Foods Tools Paleo Archaic Woodland 12,000 years agoCavesNuts, berries, animalsPrehistoric animalsStone toolsArchaic10,000 – 3,500 years agoMoved around according to the seasonFreshwater musslesFishOystersNutsmeatAtlatlShell middensMade bowls from stonespearsWoodland3,000 – 2,000 years agoLived in small villagesDeer-hide tentsRaised corn, squash, and beansMeatberriesBow and arrowMade pottery from clay
35Review Time1. Scientists who study the land and how it affects the people who live on it are called ______________.archaeologistsgeographersgeologistspaleontologists