Presentation on theme: "Egyptian Pyramids. Mastabas Mastabas were early one level tombs with sloping walls so that the flat roof was actually smaller than the base The word Mastaba."— Presentation transcript:
Mastabas Mastabas were early one level tombs with sloping walls so that the flat roof was actually smaller than the base The word Mastaba comes from the Arabic word meaning “stone bench” Earliest were made of unfired mud brick Over time the interiors became more ornate, with decorative scenes (feasting, agriculture, dancing, etc.) to ensure the dead would want for nothing in the afterlife
Step Pyramid The first pyramid built by Pharaoh named Djoser Located at Saqqara near Memphis Built by architect Imhotep – regarded as the father of Egyptian architecture, sculpture and Medicine Step pyramid had 6 tiers Based on mastaba construction – smaller mastaba placed on top of larger ones Djoser is buried under the pyramid in a burial chamber
Bent Pyramid The Bent pyramid is a pyramid started that started at one angle (approx. 52 degrees) and then suddenly changes to a more gradual angle of 43 degrees. This odd arrangement provides this pyramid with a distinctive and unique appearance. There are several possible reasons for this change in angle. Currently, the most widely accepted theory is that King Sneferu realized that if he were to continue the pyramid at its initial angle, it would rise to a height which would require a tremendous amount of material and labor. Another theory holds that the original angle resulted in displacement of many blocks and cracking of the blocks that lined the chambers and passageways. This theory continues that the gentler angle was employed to reduce the amount of weight to be added above these chambers and passageways.
Pyramids of Giza Only 7 th Wonder of the Ancient World still standing Every pyramid has been plundered The pyramid was the vessel in which the pharaoh ascended into the heavens and the afterlife. The pyramids at Giza were built on a limestone plateau – to be higher than the Nile flood plain. Pyramids were built using basic tools and equipment
The Great Pyramid Built for Pharaoh Khufu (son of Snerfu – bent pyramid guy) Located at Giza near Cairo “True pyramid” smooth sides and limestone casing Limestone later stolen and used to build Cairo Burial chamber and inner passages made of granite Took over 20 years to complete
Pyramid of Khafra Son of Khufu Only pyramid with any limestone casing left Looks larger than Khufu, but actually built on higher ground giving it the impression of being bigger Large red granite sarcophagus still in the burial chamber – Sphinx stands in front of Khafra’s pyramid
Pyramid of Menkaure Son of Khafra Smallest of the three pyramids Last pharaoh to be buried at Giza
Notes on Pyramids Means : “House of Eternity” Comes from Greek word “pyramis” meaning wheat cake Ancient Egyptians called them “mer” Built on west bank of Nile – sun sets in west “land of the dead” Designed to protect the body of the pharaoh from: Thieves Wild animals Floods Building pyramids farmers worked on pyramids during flood season (3 months a year) upwards of 100,000 farmers and 4,00 stone masons copper tools to cut out granite and limestone wooden sleds to move block built ramps of mud and stone to move block up pyramid Top of pyramid capped with a “pyramidion” (Greek) or “benben” (Egypt.)
Valley of the Kings Due to the fact that all of the pyramids were pillaged and robbed (70 + known pyramids) – Egyptians looked for an alternative to ensure a good afterlife for their pharaohs – Began building tombs in the Valley of the Kings
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