Presentation on theme: "Pyramids First built during Old Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:
1Pyramids First built during Old Kingdom ~80 pyramids still standing today.Housed the bodies of dead pharaohs.A pharaoh’s eternal tombHoused their prized possessions for them to enjoy in the afterlife.
2MastabasFirst, pyramids were a series of mastabas (oblong tombs) stacked on top of one another.Step Pyramid of Djoser began as a single mastaba, on which 5 additional mastabas were placed.Burial chamber of pharaoh remained underground.Made of mud bricks.
3Step Pyramid Invented by Imhotep. Built for the Pharaoh Djoser - ruled during the Third Dynasty (~ BCE)What’s a dynasty?A series of rulers belonging to the same family.First pyramids to be made of stone.
4Facts 62 m high Base: 125 m Built of limestone Mortuary temple on North side.
5Meydum Begun by Huni, finished by Sneferu. Near Fayium Oasis near village of Meydum.Initially an 8 step pyramidLater steps were encased in a smooth shell to create a true pyramid.
6MeydumOriginally 93.5 m high. Now 65 m.147 m long
7Meydum’s Mystery Why does it look like a step pyramid today? Collapsed during New Kingdom.Several theories:collapsed during constructionSneferu abandoned it and was later used a quarry for other monuments.
8Bent Pyramid Planned as a true pyramid from the outset. Built by SneferuThe 54° angle too steep -> adjusted to 43° to make more structurally sound.Has a “bent” look at the top, hence the name.
9Bent PyramidHeight: 104 mBase: 189 mLocated in Dahshur
10Facts Built between 2600 and 2500 BCE Built for the kings of the Fourth Dynasty:Khufu (aka Cheops)KhafreMenkaureMost famous is the Great Pyramid - King Khufu’s tomb (Sneferu’s son).Only ancient wonder of the world still standing.
11More facts Height - 146m (taller than the Statue of Liberty). Each side - 238m long (about 10 football fields)Constructed of 2.5 million stone blocks. Each block weighed ~2.5 tons - the weight of about 25 refrigerators.
12Valley of the Kings Valley of the Queens New KingdomRealization that pyramid announced riches robbersSecurity2 quiet valleys near LuxorElaborate tombs cut into valley walls
13Temples Monuments to the gods Gateway Roofless court Great hall ColumnsPrivate sanctuary of the godOther areasLiving quartersWorkshopsSchoolPoolGranariesStorehouses
14Karnak Temple Largest temple still standing today. Located in Thebes. Built and enlarged over 1300 year period.
15Mortuary TemplesBuilt to commemorate the reign of the pharaoh for whom the pyramid was built.Place to worship deceased king.
16Sphinx Head of King Khafre - 22 x size Body of lion. 72 m high, 19.8 m wide - Egypt’s largest statue.Carved from naturally occuring rocky outcrop.Temple guardians.