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Pyramids First built during Old Kingdom

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1 Pyramids First built during Old Kingdom
~80 pyramids still standing today. Housed the bodies of dead pharaohs. A pharaoh’s eternal tomb Housed their prized possessions for them to enjoy in the afterlife.

2 Mastabas First, pyramids were a series of mastabas (oblong tombs) stacked on top of one another. Step Pyramid of Djoser began as a single mastaba, on which 5 additional mastabas were placed. Burial chamber of pharaoh remained underground. Made of mud bricks.

3 Step Pyramid Invented by Imhotep.
Built for the Pharaoh Djoser - ruled during the Third Dynasty (~ BCE) What’s a dynasty? A series of rulers belonging to the same family. First pyramids to be made of stone.

4 Facts 62 m high Base: 125 m Built of limestone
Mortuary temple on North side.

5 Meydum Begun by Huni, finished by Sneferu.
Near Fayium Oasis near village of Meydum. Initially an 8 step pyramid Later steps were encased in a smooth shell to create a true pyramid.

6 Meydum Originally 93.5 m high. Now 65 m. 147 m long

7 Meydum’s Mystery Why does it look like a step pyramid today?
Collapsed during New Kingdom. Several theories: collapsed during construction Sneferu abandoned it and was later used a quarry for other monuments.

8 Bent Pyramid Planned as a true pyramid from the outset.
Built by Sneferu The 54° angle too steep -> adjusted to 43° to make more structurally sound. Has a “bent” look at the top, hence the name.

9 Bent Pyramid Height: 104 m Base: 189 m Located in Dahshur

10 Facts Built between 2600 and 2500 BCE
Built for the kings of the Fourth Dynasty: Khufu (aka Cheops) Khafre Menkaure Most famous is the Great Pyramid - King Khufu’s tomb (Sneferu’s son). Only ancient wonder of the world still standing.

11 More facts Height - 146m (taller than the Statue of Liberty).
Each side - 238m long (about 10 football fields) Constructed of 2.5 million stone blocks. Each block weighed ~2.5 tons - the weight of about 25 refrigerators.

12 Valley of the Kings Valley of the Queens
New Kingdom Realization that pyramid announced riches  robbers Security 2 quiet valleys near Luxor Elaborate tombs cut into valley walls

13 Temples Monuments to the gods Gateway Roofless court Great hall
Columns Private sanctuary of the god Other areas Living quarters Workshops School Pool Granaries Storehouses

14 Karnak Temple Largest temple still standing today. Located in Thebes.
Built and enlarged over 1300 year period.

15 Mortuary Temples Built to commemorate the reign of the pharaoh for whom the pyramid was built. Place to worship deceased king.

16 Sphinx Head of King Khafre - 22 x size Body of lion.
72 m high, 19.8 m wide - Egypt’s largest statue. Carved from naturally occuring rocky outcrop. Temple guardians.

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