2THE IMPORTANCE OF TOPOGRAPHY Communities before lived near bodies of water. Houses were lined along the coasts of seas, bays, rivers and lakes.WHY?Food from the water resourcesEasy access to foodMeans of transportationNot easily attacked by an enemy
3EARLY SHELTER: CAVES – Early Filipinos lived in caves. Caves were saferLater… he movedto the plains andcoastal areasPlains – for farmingCoastal Areas – for fishing
4EARLY SHELTER:2. NIPA HUTS –made of NIPA PALM LEAVES,WOOD and BAMBOO.Square shape and about1 meter above ground.Distinguishing feature: ONE ROOM ONLY-used as dining room, living room, bedroomand receiving rooms.
5ARIGUE EARLY SHELTER: 2. NIPA HUTS The main post of the house is called theARIGUE
6EARLY SHELTER: 2. NIPA HUTS The BATALAN is the place at the back for water jarsand cooking
7EARLY SHELTER: 3. TREE HOUSES To keep safe from enemies and wild animals. Ladderswere hoisted inat night.
8EARLY SHELTER: 4. HOUSES ON STILTS Houses along the coastal areas There is a pathwayleading to thehouse
91. AGRICULTURE – there are 2 methods MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD1. AGRICULTURE – there are 2 methodsA. KAINGIN METHODprepare the area for farming by cutting and burning and dead plants / grassesbefore cutting/burning they performed ritualsafter burning, the soil was cleaned thoroughly
10MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD 1. AGRICULTURE B. WET METHOD – rice was planted in areas wheredikes were builtto collect water.
112. HUNTING – the men used bow and arrows to hunt for deer. MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD2. HUNTING – the men used bow and arrows to hunt for deer.They were also accompanied by dogs to chase the deerAfter the catch, they divided the deeramong themselves
12MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD3. BOAT-MAKING – they made boats out of woodBIREY – boat made for 50 to 100 peopleBIROCO – boat made for more than 100
13-Filipinos traded with other Filipinos MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD4. TRADING-Filipinos traded with other FilipinosThe standard of exchange was GOLD.Malubai – worth 2 pesetasBielu – worth 3 pesetasLinguingi – worth 4 pesetasOregeras – highest value – 5 pesetas
14EARLY FILIPINO COMMUNITIES: The early communities had 10 to 20 families.The commercial communities were in thecoastal areas.Local people traded with people coming from other Asian countries.This ACTIVITY attracted PEOPLE FROM MOUNTAINS AND FORESTS.
15BALANGHAY, BINIRAY, BALANGAY, meaning A WATER VEHICLE BARANGAYFrom the wordBALANGHAY, BINIRAY, BALANGAY,meaning A WATER VEHICLERefers to an ETHNIC GROUP who migrated and rode togetherUsually, the group was named after their DATUThey would ride together in boats.
16CHOOSING A LEADERAGE – the oldest of the group was the leaderINHERITANCE – based on blood relations to the datu. (son or daughter of the datu, next immediate relative)EXTENT OF KNOWLEDGE – had enough knowledge of the customs and traditions of the tribe
17THE BARANGAY GOVERNMENT -Made up of 5 to 10 barangaysDatu head / extensive powers /implemented and made the lawsJudge between conflictsThe community would serve the DATU in times of WAR / TRAVEL / FARMING / HARVESTING/ FISHINGLaws of the barangay – WRITTEN or UNWRITTEN
18COUNCIL OF ELDERS =MADE THE LAWS OF THE BARANGAYDATU recommends a lawCOUNCIL reviews and agreesUMALAHOKAN –announces to thebarangay
19THE TRIAL 1. TRIAL BY DATU DATU = JUDGE COUNCIL OF ELDERS = JURY Oath: “May the crocodile devour me if I lie.May lightning strike me if I give a wrong statement.May I die where I am standing if I am not telling the truth.”
20THE TRIAL 1. TRIAL BY DATU DATU = JUDGE COUNCIL OF ELDERS = JURY Oath: “May the crocodile devour me if I lie. May lightning strike me if I give a wrong statement. May I die where I am standing if I am not telling the truth.”2. TRIAL BY ORDEAL – Boiling water and stoneLighted candleSwimming underwater3. TRIAL BY WAR – Fight it out until one gives up
22ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNITY FAMILY – Most important element of the communityVery close family tiesBlood is thicker than water
23PRACTICES / BELIEFS BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE CLOSE FAMILY TIES: 1. BALATA – wife doesnot eat until thehusband returnsfrom battle2. GINGGIL – a practiceof non-remarrying
24INSULTS / REVENGE: RELATIONSHIPS TURN SOUR BECAUSE OF INSULTS VISAYANS:AswangAlakawatBaranganDalondonganTAGALOGS:MangkukulamManggagaway
25When a father dies, leaves 4 children divided into 4 INHERITANCE:When a father dies, leaves 4 children divided into 4Unless the father favored one childIllegitimate child gets nothingNo children: brothers get the inheritanceSUCCESSION TO THE THRONE:ELDEST SON ND ELDEST ELDEST SON DAUGHTER
26THE 4 KINDS OF GROUPS1. DATUS OR LEADERSTagalogs call their datu – LAKAN OR GAT wives were called DAYANG-DAYANGShowed highest respectMade important decisionsRegarded as a Savior
27THE 4 KINDS OF GROUPS2. MAHARLIKA or the FREE PEOPLE(NOBLE PEOPLE)Did not pay taxesTravelled with the datuSupervised the rowersof the boat
28THE 4 KINDS OF GROUPS3. TIMAWA or the ORDINARY PEOPLE(The Masa)Allowed to live in other barangaysRowers of the boatProtected by the datu
29THE 4 KINDS OF GROUPS4. ALIPIN OR AYUEY OR THE SLAVES– lowest status-caused by inheritance(inherited from a master)-captured-punished-sold
30OTHER IMPORTANT GROUPS: BABAYLAND, BAYLANA, OR KATALONA – female priests / can communicate with the gods / heads all ritualsTAMBALAN – healers or doctorsATUBANG NG DATU – adviser of the datuDARAGANGAN – outstanding soldier / made to wear pinayusan – a decorative scarf made of abaca / longer potong – cover the headPARATABGAW – barangay teacher
31CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO (Read page 117 – 118 Beliefs)1. Pagnganga – chewing of betel nutTagalog = ngangaVisaya = buyoMalays / indians = makan sirekNGANGA = areca seeds, lime and a leaf of betel (tobacco became the 4th ingredient)
33CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO (Read page 117 – 118 Beliefs)2. BELIEF IN THE AFTERLIFET’BOLI – Soul/spirit left the body during sleep (astral projection)person awakened only after the spirit returnsdies when the soul fails to return to the bodyBAGOBO – Each had two soulsgood and bad souls
35CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO (Read page 117 – 118 Beliefs)3. BURIAL PRACTICESMANOBOS – BURY DEAD IN TREES4 methodsa) tying the dead to a branchb) placing the dead between 2 branchesc.) placed on a platform made on the brachesd.) buried inside the tree trunk
41CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICESCorpse was embalmed with herbs and oils and perfume / place in a coffinBuried right under the house / cave of a cliff overlooking the sea
42CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICESLike Egyptians – buried with the dead are:clothes, jewelry, food, weapons, sometimes even slaves / eyes were covered with beaten gold
43CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICESMourning period – relatives, family, wore white / refrained from eating meat or drinking wine / to show their deep sorrow, relatives hired professional mourners / to chant the good deeds of the dead
44CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICESBright lights burned all day and night. Fires built around the bereaved home.
45CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICESOthers, the house would be burned down and the family left to live in a new home
46CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICESIf the person who died, died violently, like murdered or tortured, the relatives would kill the guilty party and their family. To appease their sorrow.