Lesson 4-1 Metamorphism is any process that affects the structure or composition of a rock in a solid state as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, or the addition of chemical fluids.Metamorphism Most metamorphic rocks form deep within Earth’s crust. Like igneous rock, metamorphic rocks form under high temperature and pressure conditions. Metamorphic Rock Formation
Lesson 4-1 Plastic deformation is the permanent change in the shape of rock by bending and folding.Plastic deformation Plastic deformation occurs during uplift events when tectonic plates collide and form mountains. Metamorphic Rock Formation (cont.)
Lesson 4-1 The rock that changes during metamorphism is called the parent rock. The temperatures required to metamorphose rock depend on the parent rock’s composition. Metamorphic Rock Formation (cont.)
Lesson 4-1 Both temperature and pressure increase with depth in Earth’s crust and mantle.
Lesson 4-1 Metamorphic Rock Formation (cont.) Under what conditions do metamorphic rocks form?
Lesson 4-2 Metamorphic rocks are classified into two groups based on texture: foliated rocks and nonfoliated rocks.
Lesson 4-2 Foliated rocks contain parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals.Foliated rocks Metamorphic rocks that have mineral grains with a random, interlocking texture are nonfoliated rocks.nonfoliated rocks Metamorphic Rock Identification
Lesson 4-2 Metamorphic Rock Identification (cont.) foliate from Latin foliatus, means “consisting of thin, leaf-like layers”
Lesson 4-2 During contact metamorphism, magma comes in contact with existing rock, and its thermal energy and gases interact with the surrounding rock and forms nonfoliated metamorphic rock.contact metamorphism Regional metamorphism is the formation of metamorphic rock bodies that are hundreds of square kilometers in size.Regional metamorphism Metamorphic Rock Identification (cont.)
Lesson 4-2 Metamorphic Rock Identification (cont.) Compare and contrast contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism.
Lesson 4 - VS Foliated metamorphic rocks have distinct layers of flat and elongated minerals. A nonfoliated metamorphic rock has minerals arranged in a random, interlocking texture. Contact metamorphism occurs when rocks come in contact with magma without melting.
Lesson 4 – LR1 A.metamorphism B.foliation C.plastic deformation D.rock deformation When rocks bend or fold without melting, the permanent change in the rock’s shape is called what?
Lesson 4 – LR2 A.foliated rocks B.metamorphic rocks C.crystallized rocks D.nonfoliated rocks What kind of rocks contain parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals?
Lesson 4 – LR3 A.regionalC.plastic B.crystalD.contact Which type of metamorphism occurs when magma comes in contact with existing rock, and its thermal energy and gases interact with the surrounding rock?
Lesson 4 - Now 7.With the right pressure and temperature conditions, minerals in a rock can change shape without breaking or melting. 8.Metamorphic rocks have layers that form as minerals melt and then recrystallize. Do you agree or disagree?
Chapter Review Menu Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
The BIG Idea Igneous rocks form from molten rock that cools and crystallizes. Sedimentary rocks form from compaction and cementation of sediments or evaporation and crystallization of minerals dissolved in water. Metamorphic rocks form from exposure of existing rocks to high pressures, temperatures, or the addition of chemical fluids.
Key Concepts 1 There are three major rock types—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Geologists study rock texture and mineral composition to identify rocks of each type. Rocks can melt or recrystallize. Rocks exposed on Earth’s surface can break down due to forces such as water, ice, wind, and gravity. New rocks form under changing temperature and pressure conditions or the addition of chemical fluids. Lesson 1: Rocks and the Rock Cycle Nancy Simmerman/Getty Images
Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form when volcanic material cools and crystallizes. Crystal size is dependent on how quickly the magma or lava cools. Igneous rocks range in color from light to dark, depending on their mineral composition.
Key Concepts 3 Weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, compaction, cementation, and crystallization are the important processes in the formation of sedimentary rocks. A sedimentary rock’s texture and mineral composition depends on where it formed and the forces that created it. Lesson 3: Sedimentary Rocks National Geographic/Getty Images
Key Concepts 4 Metamorphic rocks form from a parent rock that has been exposed to increases in temperature, pressure, or the addition of chemical fluids. Some metamorphic rocks have foliated textures and are deformed. Others are composed of coarse and blocky crystals that are uniform in color. Lesson 4: Metamorphic Rocks
Chapter Review – MC1 A.metamorphoses B.sediment deposit C.rock cycle D.rock deposit Which term refers to the series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock?
Chapter Review – MC2 A.sizeC.weight B.colorD.texture Geologists can determine if an igneous rock is extrusive or intrusive by studying its composition and which of these?
Chapter Review – MC3 A.chemicalC.carbonate B.biochemicalD.clastic Which type of rock is sedimentary rock that was formed by organisms or contains the remains of organisms?
Chapter Review – MC4 A.cementation B.compaction C.crystallization D.erosion Which process occurs when minerals dissolved in water crystallize between sediment grains?
Chapter Review – MC5 A.igneous B.foliated C.nonfoliated D.sedimentary Which type of rocks contain parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals?
Chapter Review – STP1 A.sediment B.metamorphic rock C.lava D.crystals Which term refers to magma that erupts on Earth’s surface?
Chapter Review – STP2 A.igneous B.sedimentary C.metamorphic D.mineral When magma or lava cools and crystallizes, it creates which type of rock?
Chapter Review – STP3 A.minerals B.crystals C.holes D.grains An igneous rock is classified as extrusive if which part is difficult or impossible to see without a magnifying glass?
Chapter Review – STP4 A.chemical reaction B.plastic deformation C.foliation D.metamorphism Which term refers to any process that affects the structure or composition of solid rock?
Chapter Review – STP5 A.cementation B.regional metamorphism C.contact metamorphism D.plastic deformation Which process refers to the formation of metamorphic rock bodies that are hundreds of square kilometers in size?