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Chapter 3:The Dynamic Earth

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1 Chapter 3:The Dynamic Earth
31. The Geosphere 3.2 The Atmosphere 3.3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere p.58-83

2 Key Terms Geosphere Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere Asthenosphere
Tectonic plate Erosion Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Ozone Radiation Conduction Convention Greenhouse effect Water cycle Evaporation Condensation Precipitation Salinity Fresh water Biosphere Closed system Open system

3 3.1 The Geosphere Describe the composition and structure of the Earth
Describe the Earth’s tectonic plates Explain the main cause of earthquakes and their effects Identify the relationship between volcanic eruptions and climate change Describe how wind and water alter the Earth’s surface

4 The Earth as a System What are the conditions that allow us to survive on a constantly changing planet? The earth is divide into 4 parts Geosphere (rock) Atmosphere (air) Hydrosphere (water) Biosphere (living things)

5 Geosphere The solid part of the Earth that consists of all rock, soils and sediments on Earth’s Surface Most is located in interior

6 Discovering Earth’s Interior
Very difficult to study – we have only looked at 12km deep Seismic waves to study Earth’s Interior (waves travel differently in physical layers) Composition of Earth- Crust- think outer layer, light elements, less than 1% of planet’s mass Mantle 64% mass of Earth, 2,900km thick, rock medium density, iron rich layer Core densest element radius of 3,400km, hot nickel and iron center of Earth Bill Nye- (23mins)

7 Composition of Earth-3 layers
Crust- think outer layer, light elements, less than 1% of planet’s mass, 5-8km thick beneath the oceans and 20-70km beneath the continents Mantle- layer under crust, makes up 64% of mass, 2,900km thick, made of rock, medium dense Core- innermost layer, densest elements, radius of 3,400 km

8 The Structure of the Earth
5 layers- Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere Outer Core Inner Core

9 Lithosphere- stone 15-300 km thick Cool rigid Outermost layer of Earth
Crust and uppermost part of mantle Divided into huge pieces called plate tectonic Both continental and oceanic crust

10 Asthenosphere 250 km thick
Solid plastic layer of mantle between the mesosphere and the lithospehre Made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, allows for plates to move on top of it

11 Mesosphere 2,550 km thick Middle sphere
Lower layer of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core

12 Outer core 2,200 km thick Outer shell of Earth’s core
Made of liquid nickel and iron

13 Inner Core 1,228 km radius Spere of solid nickel and iron at the center of the Earth

14 Thicknesses and density
The crust may be divided into 2 types: oceanic and continental. Oceanic crust is usually 5-10 km thick and continental crust is 33 km thick on average. Beneath the crust is the mantle. The mantle extends to the core-mantle interface at approximately 2900 km depth. General increase in density with depth.

15 Plate Tectonics Glide across the underlying asthenosphere like ice on a pond Continents are located on them and move with them Pacific, North American, South American, African, Eurasian, and Antarctic plates Plate boundaries- this movement may cause mountains, earthquakes, volcanoes erupt Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building- Himalaya Mountains (Asia and India plates collided 50mya) (7mins) NGO- 50mins Bill- 23mins


17 Earthquakes Fault- break in Earth’s crust preventing it from sliding
When it breaks and creates vibrations in crusts  creates earthquakes Occur all the time most are too small to feel Richter scale- quantify the amount of energy reassessed by an earthquake or its magnitude Smallest magnitude that can be felt is 2.0 Largest recorded 9.5 Earthquakes of 7 or greater cause widespread damage


19 Where do they occur? Take place at the boundaries due to the stress level San Andreas Fault along California (N. American plate and Pacific plate are slipping) We cannot predict when they will occur but rather the likely hood of where they can occur High risk areas we build bridges and buildings slightly flexible so they can sway when the ground moves


21 Japan's Tsunami - How it Happened 2011

22 Volcanoes Mountains/ islands built from magma, melted rock, that comes from the Earth’s core Can occur on land or under the sea Most active areas is around the pacific Ocean plate boundaries


24 Local Effects of Volcanic Eruptions
Loss of human life Clouds of hot ash, dust, gases travel down at speed of 200km/hr killing everything in its path Can mix with water can create a mudslide Destroy buildings, bury crops, damage engines of vehicles Breathing difficulties

25 Global Effects of Volcanic Eruptions
Global impact: Mt St Helen- change Earth’s climate for several years Ash and gases travel into the atmosphere reducing sunlight decreasing global temperatures for several years Top 10- Billl Nye (23mins)


27 Erosion The removal and transport of surface material
Water Erosion- rivers create deep gorges or oceans waves erode coastlines Wind Erosion- area where plants are limited (beaches and deserts) sandstone vs granite can erode more quickly Bill-

28 3.2 Atmosphere Describe the composition of the Earth’s Atmosphere
Describe the layers of the Earth’s atmosphere Explain 3 mechanisms of heat transfer in Earth’s atmosphere Explain the greenhouse effect

29 Atmosphere Mixture of gases found in first 30km above the Earth’s surface

30 Composition of the Atmosphere
Nitrogen 78% Oxygen – 21% Other -1 % (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor) Tiny solid particles or dust (soil, salt, ash, skin, hair clothing, pollen, bacteria, viruses, aerosols) Air pressure- due to the gravity, more dense closer to earth, difficult to breath at higher elevations

31 Layers of the Atmosphere
Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere

32 Troposphere- layer closes to the Earth’s surface to 18km above
weather occurs in this layer densest layer temperature decreases as altitude increases

33 Stratosphere- Above the troposphere
Extends from 18km to altitude of 50km Temperatures rise as altitude increases in the stratosphere, because the ozone absorbs the suns UV energy and warms the air Ozone- O3- molecule that is made up of 3 oxygen atoms Reduced the amount of UV that reaches the Earth

34 Mesosphere Layer above the stratosphere
Extended to an altitude of 80km Coldest layer as low as -93’C

35 Thermosphere Farthest from the Earth
Nitrogen and oxygen absorb solar radiation- temperatures have been measured above 2,000’C Would not feel hot to us because this layer is so thin that air particles rarely collide – little heat is transferred Lower level is called ionosphere – it absorbs X and gamma rays, causing the atoms to be electrically charged (ions) Ions can radiate energy as light- Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights (North and South poles)

36 Energy in the Atmosphere
Energy is neither created or destroyed  transferred and transformed Radiation- transfer of energy across a space (fire, sunlight) Conduction- flow of heat from one object to another Convection- air currents (hot air rises)

37 Heating of the Atmosphere
Solar energy reaches the Earth as electromagnetic radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, UV light Only ½ actually reaches the Earth Most is absorbed or reflected by clouds, gases and dust Ocean/ lakes and land radiate the energy back into the atmosphere 50% absorbed by Earth’s Surface 25% scattered and reflected by clouds and air 20% absorbed by ozone, clouds and gases 5% reflected by Earth surface

38 The Movement of Energy in the Atmosphere
Convection Currents- movement of the air in a circular pattern that are caused by the unequal heating of the Atmosphere Cold air sinks and hot air rises

39 The Greenhouse Effect Gases trap heat near the Earth
Like heat being trapped into a car on a hot day, the glass window would be the atmosphere This allows for the Earth to be warm, if it did not occur Earth would be too cold for life 3 mins- Discovery Channel - Global Warming, What You Need To Know, with Tom Brokaw 80mins-

40 3.1The Hydrosphere and Biosphere
Name 3 major processes in the water cycle Describe the properties of ocean water Describe the 2 types of ocean currents Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s Temperature Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere Explain the difference between open and closed systems

41 Hydrosphere Makes up all of the water on the Earth’s surface
Most is found in the oceans (3/4 globe) Atmosphere, land and in soil

42 Hydrosphere and Water Cycle
Water cycle- Continuous movement into ht air, land back to water Evaporation- liquid water is heated by sun and goes into the atmosphere Condensation- water vapor cools and forms water droplets Precipitation- larger droplets fall from clouds (snow, sleet, or hail) Bill Nye- (3mins) Rap- Magic School Bus-


44 Earth’s Oceans World Oceans- Arctic, Pacific, Atlantic, Indian
70% of earth surface Regulates Planet’s environment High salt concentrations (salinity)( lower where freshwater or rain runs into it, high in areas where evaporation is high) Temperature zones- surface warmed by sun, deep clod no sunlight (surface zone, thermocline- warm and cold weather)

45 Global Temperature Regulator
Absorb and store energy from sunlight regulates temperatures in Earth’s Atmosphere Ocean absorbs and release more slowly than land does If it did not regulate temps conditions would be too extreme for life today Can warm land masses near by

46 Ocean Currents Surface currents- stream like movements of water that occur at or near the surface, wind driven and a result from global wind patterns Deep currents- streamlike movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor (Antarctic Bottom Water) Bill Nye-



49 Fresh water 3% of Earth’s water Most is locked in icecaps and glaciers
Lakes, rivers, streams, ground water, wetlands, and atmosphere River systems- network of streams that drains an area of land including its tributaries (small that flow into large ones) Mississippi River system 40%

50 Ground water Rain and melting snow run off the land collected into the ground 1% of all of Earth’s Water Aquifers- rock layer that stores and allows the flow of ground water Recharge zone- where water enters an aquifer


52 Biosphere Part of Earth were life exists
Think layer at Earth’s surface down to the bottom of the ocean

53 Biosphere If the Earth was an apple- it would be the skin
Uppermost part of the geosphere, most of hydrosphere, lower part of atmosphere 11km into the ocean and 9km into the atmosphere Life requires: liquid water Temps between 10-40’c Source of energy

54 Energy Flow in the Biosphere
Sun light main source of energy 4 biogeochemical cycle ( recycling of once living organisms to be put back into the Earth’s resources) Closed system- Earth mostly closed with respect to matter, Eden Project Open system- sun/ energy, energy comes in from the sun and lost as heat

55 Webquest:

56 BBC- Power of the Planet
Atmosphere Earth ice

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