Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Earth is divided into four parts:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Earth is divided into four parts: Section 1 The GeosphereThe Earth as a SystemEarth is divided into four parts:The GeosphereThe AtmosphereThe HydrosphereThe Biosphere
2 Discovering Earth’s Interior Chapter 3Section 1 The GeosphereDiscovering Earth’s InteriorMeasure changes in the speed and direction of seismic waves through different mediums.Earth is made up of different layers
3 The Structure of the Earth Chapter 3Section 1 The GeosphereThe Structure of the EarthCompositional LayersCrustMantleCorePhysical Layers:Lithosphere - solid, outer layer of crust and upper mantle (tectonic plates).Asthenosphere – “plastic” layer of mantle (flows allowing tectonic plates to move).Mesosphere - lower mantle.outer core - liquid layerInner core - center of the Earth, dense, solid, made of iron and nickel.
5 Chapter 3 Plate Tectonics Section 1 The GeospherePlate TectonicsThe continents are located on tectonic platesThe major plates arePacificNorth AmericanSouth AmericanAfricanEurasianAntarcticTectonic plates may separate/collide/slip past one another causing mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
6 Chapter 3 Earthquakes Fault- break in the Earth’s crust Section 1 The GeosphereEarthquakesFault- break in the Earth’s crustWhen rocks under stress break along a fault, earthquakes are set off.
7 Chapter 3 Earthquakes Magnitude-energy released by an earthquake. Section 1 The GeosphereEarthquakesMagnitude-energy released by an earthquake.smallest magnitude felt is 2.0largest magnitude recorded is 9.5Magnitudes >7.0 cause widespread damage.An increase of 1 whole number releases 31.7x more energy.
8 Chapter 3 Earthquake Hazard Section 1 The GeosphereEarthquake HazardScientists can determine where earthquakes are likely to occur, not when.An area’s earthquake-hazard level is determined by past/present seismic activity.Earthquake-resistant buildings are flexible so that they can sway with the ground motion.
9 Chapter 3Section 1 The GeosphereVolcanoesVolcanoes are often located near colliding/separating tectonic plate boundaries.Most active volcanoes are on Pacific Plate boundaries.
10 Local Effect of Volcanic Eruptions Chapter 3Section 1 The GeosphereLocal Effect of Volcanic Eruptionsash, dust, and gases can flow up to 200 km/hr and sear everything in their path.volcanic ash can mix with water and produce mudflows.ash can cause buildings to collapse, bury crops, damage car engines, and cause breathing difficulties.
11 Global Effects of Volcanic Eruptions Chapter 3Section 1 The GeosphereGlobal Effects of Volcanic EruptionsIn large eruptions, clouds of ash and gases spread across the planet reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface.This can cause a drop in global temperature for several years.
12 Chapter 3Section 1 The GeosphereErosionErosion – Earth’s materials are transported from one place to another by wind, water, ice or gravity.Erosion wears downs rocks and makes them smoother over time. Older mountains are therefore smoother than younger ones.
13 Chapter 3 The Atmosphere Section 2 The AtmosphereThe AtmosphereGases can be added and removed from the atmosphere through living organisms.Volcanic eruptions add gases to the atmosphere, while vehicles both add and remove gases.
14 Composition of the Atmosphere Chapter 3Section 2 The AtmosphereComposition of the AtmosphereNitrogen is 78% of the atmosphere (produced by volcanoes and decaying organisms).Oxygen is 21% of the atmosphere (produced by plants).Other gases include argon, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor.
15 Chapter 3Section 2 The AtmosphereAir PressureEarth’s atmosphere is pulled toward Earth’s surface by gravity, therefore, the atmosphere is denser near the Earth’s surface.Air becomes less dense with elevation, so breathing at higher elevations is more difficult.
16 Layers of the Atmosphere Chapter 3Section 2 The AtmosphereLayers of the AtmosphereFour layers based on temperature changes above Earth’s surface.TroposphereStratosphereMesosphereThermosphere
17 Chapter 3 The Troposphere troposphere lowest layer Section 2 The AtmosphereThe Tropospheretropospherelowest layertemperature decreases as altitude increases.weather conditions occurdensest layer
18 Chapter 3 The Stratosphere Stratosphere above the troposphere Section 2 The AtmosphereThe StratosphereStratosphereabove the troposphereTemperature rises as altitude increases because ozone in the stratosphere absorbs the sun’s UV energy and warms the air.
19 Chapter 3 The Mesosphere above the stratosphere Section 2 The AtmosphereThe Mesosphereabove the stratospherecoldest layer (temperatures as low as –135ºF)
20 Chapter 3 The Thermosphere farthest from Earth’s surface Section 2 The AtmosphereThe Thermospherefarthest from Earth’s surfacenitrogen and oxygen absorb solar radiation resulting in temps above 3,632 ºFair is so thin that air particles rarely collide, so little heat is transferred, and would therefore not feel hot.X rays and gamma rays absorbed by nitrogen and oxygen cause atoms to become electrically charged ions.lower thermosphere is called the ionosphere.Ions can radiate energy as light, which glow as the Aurora Borealis near the poles.
21 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Chapter 3Section 2 The AtmosphereEnergy Transfer in the AtmosphereRadiation – energy transferred as waves (sunlight)Conduction - transfer energy as heat through contactConvection - movement of matter due to differences in density caused by temperature variationswarm air rising and cool air sinking
22 Chapter 3 The Greenhouse Effect Section 2 The AtmosphereThe Greenhouse EffectThe greenhouse effect - warming of the lower atmosphere that occurs when greenhouse gases absorb, trap, and reradiate infrared radiation.Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would be too cold for life to exist.The most abundant greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
23 Chapter 3 The Hydrosphere Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3The HydrosphereThe hydrosphere includes all of the water on Earthoceans, lakes, rivers, wetlands, polar ice caps, groundwater, and clouds.
24 Chapter 3 The Water Cycle water cycle - continuous movement of water Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3The Water Cyclewater cycle - continuous movement of waterEvaporation –liquid to gasCondensation –gas to liquidWater vapor on dust particles form clouds.Precipitation - rain, snow, sleet, and hail
25 Chapter 3 Earth’s Ocean The largest ocean is the Pacific Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Earth’s OceanThe largest ocean is the PacificDeepest point, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench.11,033 m which is deeper than Mount Everest is tallSurface currents move clockwise north of the equator.Surface currents move counter-clockwise south of the equator.
26 Chapter 3 Earth’s Oceans The 2nd largest ocean is the Atlantic Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Earth’s OceansThe 2nd largest ocean is the Atlantichalf the size of the Pacificdivided into a north and south half based on the surface current flowThe Indian Ocean is the 3rd largest oceanThe smallest ocean is the ArticMostly covered by floating ice
27 Chapter 3 Ocean Water Salinity is the amount of salt in a liquid. Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Ocean WaterSalinity is the amount of salt in a liquid.Salinity is low in places high precipitation or where fresh water flows in to the sea.Salinity is high where water evaporates rapidly and leaves the salt behind.Most salt in the ocean is NaCl.
28 Chapter 3 Temperature Zones Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Temperature ZonesThe surface zone is warmed by the sun, while the deep zone is just above freezing.Surface waters are mixed by waves/currents.In the middle is the thermocline, where the temperature falls rapidly.
29 A Global Temperature Regulator Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3A Global Temperature RegulatorThe ocean absorbs and releases heat slower than land, so the temperature of the atmosphere changes slowly.Without the ocean, temperatures would be too extreme for life to exist on Earth.Currents that circulate warm water bring moderate climates to land.EX: the British Isles are warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream.
30 Chapter 3 Ocean Currents Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Ocean CurrentsSurface currents: Wind driven movement of water near the surface.Deep currents - movements of water that flow slowly along the ocean floor.form when cold, dense water from the poles sinks below warm, less dense water and flows toward the equator.
31 Fresh Water and River Systems Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Fresh Water and River SystemsFresh water – most is locked in icecaps and glaciers, the rest is in lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil and atmosphere.river system - network of streams that drains an area of land.
32 Chapter 3 Ground water Aquifer: A rock layer that stores groundwater. Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Ground waterAquifer: A rock layer that stores groundwater.Rain and melting snow sink into the ground, run off the land and collect as groundwater.1% of all the water on Earth, yet fulfills the need for drinking water, and supplies agricultural and industrial need.
33 Section 3 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere Chapter 3The Biospherebiosphere -part of Earth where life exists (11 km into the ocean and 9 km into the atmosphere).When an organism dies, its nutrients become available for other organisms.Plants need sunlight to produce their food, and form the basis of the food chain.
34 Energy Flow in the Biosphere Section 3 The Hydrosphere and BiosphereChapter 3Energy Flow in the BiosphereClosed systems: Earth cannot exchange matter outside of its boundaries.Open systems: Earth can exchange energy outside of its boundaries.