Presentation on theme: "Course Competency #7: I can prepare a variety of desserts FACSE National Standard 8.5.10: Prepare breads, baked goods and desserts using safe handling."— Presentation transcript:
Course Competency #7: I can prepare a variety of desserts FACSE National Standard 8.5.10: Prepare breads, baked goods and desserts using safe handling and professional preparation techniques.
Although we think of the pastry chef as one who makes ALL of the bread, cakes, candies, and pies, a true pastry is defined as a dough made from fat, flour, and liquid that bakes in “layers”. The layers create what we refer to as “flakiness”. In a pie crust pastry, the fat is distributed in pieces throughout the flour. As the dough is rolled out, the fat and flour become layered together. As the pie crust bakes, the fat layer melts away and air pockets form in their place. The new layers of air pockets plus the flour layers form “flakes”. Fat particles shown here in yellow, and flour is brown.
The layered pastry doughs are used to make a variety of breads, candies, desserts, and of course… pie crusts! A pastry, whether it is a bread such as croissants or a dessert such as Napoleons, is considered a challenge to many bakers. The layers of fat and flour are delicate and have to be handled with care.
Three kinds of Pies Pie shell – baked separately, filled later, prick crust – lemon, cream Single crust pie – bottom crust and filling baked together – pecan, pumpkin Double crust pie – bottom crust, filling and top crust baked together – fruit pies
The four main ingredients in pastry, and their function. Flourstructure Saltflavor Fattenderness Liquidhold together, moisture
May include one or more kinds of fat… animal fats such as lard or butter, or vegetable fats such as shortening or margarine. Even oils might be used, especially to cut levels of cholesterol. Fat creates “tenderness”. Too much fat makes the product crumbly or greasy. If using lard, decrease the amount of fat by 15-20%. Liquids add the moisture and hold the dough together… part of the structure. While the most common is water, milk adds flavor and nutrients. Too much liquid causes the product to become soggy or sticky. Sugar, salt, or other spices add flavor. Flour provides the structure of the product. Over-measuring flour creates “toughness”. Flour contains a protein called gluten. This can also cause a tough product if over- worked.
1.Measure the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. 1 cup of flour and ¼ tsp. salt will make a single crust. 2.Put the solid fat into the bowl also. Use a pastry blender to “cut in” the shortening, making coarse crumbs. (an experienced baker may use two knives or their fingers) Use 1/3 cup shortening per 1 cup of flour. Should resemble coarse cornmeal. 3. Use a fork to “toss” the flour while very gradually adding water. Use your eyes and hands to judge consistency. It takes approximately ¼ cup water per 1 cup flour. 4. The flour mixture begins to form clumps…clinging together as water is added. 5. Use your hands to form dough into a soft, but not sticky ball. Overworking the dough at this step causes the flour protein (gluten) to form long, tough strands.
When cutting in shortening with flour and salt, why is it important to mix it thoroughly together like coarse corn meal? So it will be thoroughly mixed to make the crust tender and flaky Why is the temperature of water important when adding to the flour/shortening mixture? Cold water to chill fat so it doesn’t melt
What utensils do you use to add the water? fork Handling the dough too much; does what to the pastry? Toughens the dough When rolling out the dough, what do you use to help prevent it from sticking to the rolling pin and counter top? Pastry cloth and stockinet
The direction you roll out a pie crust is very important! Always start in the center and roll outward. Pick up the rolling pin and return to the center before rolling in an outward direction again. Turn dough over regularly to keep from sticking. quick Maintain a circle shape! Roll to 1/8” Flatten the ball of dough with your hands. Flour the surface, both sides of the dough, and the rolling pin. Fold the crust in half over a rolling pin. Gently pick up the dough and place it in the pie pan. Unfold the dough, covering the entire pie plate. Carefully lift and coax the dough down into the pan…don’t push or stretch it!
If using a metal pie pan, non-shiny is best for allowing the bottom crust to brown. Glass (ceramic) pans come in 8, 9, or 10 inch diameters. When using these, remember the rule of thumb about using glass bakeware….. lower the oven temperature 25 degrees!
Whether the pie has just a single bottom crust, or has a top crust also, the edges must be “finished” prior to baking. This pie shows two common edge presentations… one done with a fork in the foreground, and one being fluted in the demonstration. In some pies, such as lemon meringue, the bottom crust is baked first and the cooked filling is added later. Before baking an empty crust, you must poke holes in it with a fork to allow steam to escape and keep it laying flat in the pan. The slashes cut in the top of a two-crust pie aren’t just for looks…they allow the steam to escape! This all-American apple pie looks great, especially since the top crust was glazed with milk and sugar. The glaze eliminates the dry- flour look and allows it to brown nicely. It improves both flavor and appearance! Bake your pie in the middle of the oven!
BLIND BAKING Baking the pie shell before placing the filling inside the shell—this is BLIND BAKING. Use for cooked fillings or solid fillings that will not be baked in the pie crust. To blind bake after crust is in pan and fluted, DOCK (place holes with a fork) all over the bottom and sides of the crust, then weight with another pan weighted with dried beans to prevent blisters or bubbles.
Roll out the top crust of the pie in the usual manner. Cut this top crust into strips, ½ inch wide. Lay part of the strips across a colorful pie filling, all going one direction and spaced ½ inch apart. Weave the remaining strips of pastry over and under the first strips. Flute the edges.
Baking Pies & Pastries If only 1 rack is needed to bake a pie, place it in the center of the oven If 2 racks are needed to bake pies –Arrange racks evenly in the oven –Arrange the pans to allow the heat to circulate Good pastry –Evenly browned –Blistered surface –Crisp & tender
Ways to Use Pastry… Dessert –Fruit Pie –Custard Pie –Tart Accompaniment –Pastry cut into strips or fancy shapes –To garnish salads or soups Main Dish –Quiche –Chicken Pot Pie
Nutrients & Storage… Nutrients –All pastries contain a high proportion of fat –Contribute energy & calories to the diet Storage –Store unused chiffon, custard, & meat pies in the fridge –Both baked & unbaked pies can be frozen Wrap them in freezer wrap or put in freezer bags
Convenience Pastries… 4 forms of convenience pastries 1.Mixes 2.Frozen Whole pies Pie fillings 3.Canned Pie filling & canned fruits Custards 4.Ready-to-eat You can create homemade pastry mix –Combine the correct proportions of flour, salt, & shortening –Store in an airtight container –Add water when you are ready to bake a pie
Preparing individuals for life and work Strengthening families Empowering communities Created by Barbara L. Swarthout, Family & Consumer Sciences teacher at Elkhorn High School Updated by Dawn Boyden October 2010