34 Main Pie Ingredients Flour = structure Salt = flavor Fat = tendernessLiquid = holds dough together + moisture
4Pastry Dough Ingredients Differences in fats:Taste and flavorLard or Shortening = more tenderOil = harder to handle i.e. crumblyDifferences in flours:All-purpose – harder wheat, more glutenCake flour – softer wheat, less gluten
5Understanding Pie Dough Pie crusts are made from four basic ingredients: flour, fat, salt, and waterFlour gives structure to the pastryFat makes pie tough because it causes gluten development in flourFat adds flakiness because it separates the layers of glutenOil and margarine are the two most common fats used to make pie crustOil makes pie crust mealy (granular) and tender rather than flaky and tenderWater provides moisture to help gluten form and produces steam for flakiness
6Understanding Pie Dough Salt adds much more to pie crust than other flavoringsShortening is cut into the flour until it resembles particles the size of saltPie dough should be mixed with the handsA pie crust recipe should always list a specific amount of waterToo much flour, water, or fat will make the pie crust toughDough that is stretched to fit the pie pan will shrink from the sides while baking
7Making DoughWhen cutting in shortening with flour and salt, it is important to mix it thoroughly together like coarse corn meal so that your crust is tender and flakyWater must be icy cold to prevent the fat from meltingUse a fork to mix the water into the doughHandling the dough too much toughens the pastry dough
8Rolling DoughAlways begin rolling from the center to the outer edge, lifting it up at the edgePoking holes in the dough with a fork or pricking it, will prevent the dough from puffing during bakingUsing a pastry cloth and stockinet will help prevent it from sticking to the rolling pin and counter top
9Three Styles of Pie Crusts Pie shellbaked separately and filled after bakingpricked crustFilled with creams/puddingSingle crust piebottom crust and filling baked togetherEx: pecan and pumpkinDouble crust piebottom crust, filling, and top crust baked togetherEx: fruit pies
10Double Crust Pie Sealing Cut excess edge of dough off bottom crustFill pie dishLay top dough over ingredients then cut excess edge of dough off the top crustRub water on the bottom crust before adding top crustCrimp them together using various fluting techniques
11Storing & Caring for Pies/Dough It is all right to re-roll the dough, once, if it is not rolled perfectly the first timeCustard, chiffon, and cream pies need to be refrigerated and should be used within 6-7 daysFruit pies are best when eaten within 1-2 days but can be kept up to four daysFruit pies can be frozen for 9-10 months.Cream/custard pies freeze very wellBaked or unbaked pie crusts may be frozen.
12Secrets to Successful Pastries If your pastry is crumbly and hard to roll:Add more water, 1 teaspoon at a timeToss the flour mixture and water together a little more or just till evenly moistenedIf your pastry is tough:Use a pastry blender to cut in the shortening or lard till well mixed and all of the mixture resembles small peas.Use less water to moisten the flour mixture.Toss the flour mixture and water together only till all of the flour mixture is moistened.Use less flour when rolling out the pastry.
13Secrets to Successful Pastries If your crust shrinks excessively:Roll the pastry to an even thicknessMix in water only till evenly moistenedDon’t stretch pastry when transferring itIf the bottom crust is soggy:Use a dull metal or glass pie plate, not a shiny metal panPatch any cracks in the pastry with a scrap of the pastry before adding the fillingBe sure the oven temperature is accurate. If the temperature is too low, the bottom crust will not bake properlyBrush egg white over the bottom of the crust prior to baking