Whole or sliced fruit is combined with sugar and a starch thickener. The sugar forms a syrup with the fruit juices. The thickener congeals the syrup to firm up the filling as it bakes. ◦ Common thickeners – flour, cornstarch, tapioca starch
The filling is similar to pudding, consisting of eggs, milk, cornstarch and flavoring The filling is precooked, cooled and poured into an already baked and cooled crust. Examples ◦ Lemon ◦ Banana ◦ Coconut ◦ Butterscotch ◦ Chocolate
Similar texture to cream pies The uncooked custard filling is baked at the same time as the crust Examples ◦ Pumpkin ◦ Pecan
Not a dessert pie Contains cooked meat, poultry, seafood, or vegetables in a thickened sauce
Describe and apply principles of making tender and flaky pastry crust
Flour and water form the gluten structure ◦ all purpose flavor is usually used Fat adds flavor and tenderizes the gluten ◦ Shortening and lard make the flakiest crust ◦ Oil will produce a less flaky crust Ice-cold water helps keep the fat from melting during the mixing Salt enhances the flavor of the fat Some recipes add a little sugar and vinegar to bind with the flour proteins to limit the gluten formation
Cut the fat into the flour with a pastry blender or two knives, only until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs or small peas.pastry blender Add the water one tablespoon at a time, mixing lightly with a fork after each addition. Video to illustrate Video to illustrate
Form a ball of dough that is neither crumbly nor sticky ◦ Humidity will affect the amount of water you need to add. ◦ Mix as little as possible to keep the fat particles separated by the moistened flour
Let the dough rest to relax the gluten ◦ Cover with wax paper and a towel so it doesn’t dry out This reduces shrinkage during baking ◦ You don’t have to rest Take a few minutes to clean up or start the filling steps. ◦ Gluten forms when flour and water exercise together. They can make very very tough and rubbery pastry if we didn’t take steps to make it shorter and reduce the “exercise” time.
Prepare your surface ◦ Clean, washable ◦ Either sprinkle with flour, or ◦ Place dough between two pieces of wax paper or plastic wrap Press the ball of dough to flatten it slightly ◦ If you made a batch for two crusts, use a knife to cut it into 2 parts. The bottom crust needs to be a little bigger than the top crust.
Gently roll the dough from the center out in all directions, occasionally turning to maintain a circular shape. ◦ Aim for a thickness of 1/8 “ and a diameter of 2” larger than top of pie pan ◦ Flour the rolling pin and surface only as needed to reduce sticking
Brush off excess flour from the dough To transfer to nearby pie pan ◦ Gently fold dough in 1/4s and lift to the pan and gently unfold ◦ OR ◦ Wind the dough loosely around the rolling pin, starting with the edge nearest you and rolling away. Hold the rolling pin over the far edge of the pie pan. Unwind and let it settle into the pan
Carefully center the dough. Fit it gently onto the bottom and sides. Avoid stretching the dough or it will shrink while baking
A broken or torn piece of dough can be patched ◦ Cut off a piece of extra dough ◦ Moistened the area to be repaired with cold water ◦ Press the patch on firmly ◦ Sprinkle with a little flour and roll with the pin to smooth it out.
The fancy edges are called fluting. Examples:
After rolling out and positioning the bottom crust into the pan, trim the edges even with the edge of the pan Roll out the top crust, but keep it covered until you need it. Prepare the filling and pour it over the bottom dough Place the top dough over the filled pie. Trim the top dough to about ½ inch larger than the pie pan. Slightly moisten the edge of the bottom dough. Tuck the overhang under the edge of the bottom edge. Press both together Flute the edge Cut several slits in the top dough near the center Optional – glaze the top with milk and a light sprinkle of sugar or with beaten egg mixed with water. Optional – use cookie cutter to cut shapes from leftover dough and place them on the filling.
Some one crust pies bake the pastry at the same time as the filling Others cook the pie crust separately and then fill The only change is to leave ½ inch overhang after fitting into bottom of the pan in order to flute. To keep it from puffing up when baking, ◦ Docking = use a fork to poke small holes, or… ◦ Put another smaller pie pan on top, or… ◦ Line it with aluminum foil and then fill with dried beans
Made of crushed crackers or cookies ◦ Graham crackers, gingersnaps, sandwich cookies, vanilla wafers, or macaroons. ◦ You can also add nuts, oats, coconut, or spices ◦ Grind crumbs very fine and stir in melted butter or margarine and press ◦ Crust may be baked or chilled
A crumbly mixture of butter, flour, sugar and spices
A square or circle of pastry dough folded over a sweet or savory filling Baked or deep-fried
A tart has a single pie crust, but it is always removed from the pan before serving A full size tart, also called a flan, is made in a special pan with a removable bottom or with a flan ring A galette (gah-LEHT) is a hand shaped tart
Pie shells are usually baked at 425 or 450 F for about 20 minutes. Filled pies are baked at a similar temperature for the first 10 minutes, and then at 350 to finish. Don’t line the oven rack with foil, but putting an empty pan on the shelf below can catch drips. If you add the filling to the crust and let it sit, it can make the crust soggy. If the crust is browning too fast on edges, shield them with foil.