2 My name is Engr. Olu Ogunduyile My name is Engr. Olu Ogunduyile. I am privileged of God to be the Chairman / CEO of KENOL GROUP. A company dedicated to ensuring that Nigeria and Nigerians benefit from the technological advancement going on all over the world.
3 The need for energy dates as far back as human existence The need for energy dates as far back as human existence. Beginning with agriculture, without which food, which is a basic necessity for survival is not produced. Human intelligence has led to a wide range of other sources of energy. Some of which are mineral sources such as diamonds, coals, fossil fuels etc. These minerals have been and are still being utilized in power generation as well as serving as foreign exchange earners for countries where they are found in commercial quantities. Due to the ability of these minerals to help generate power and earn income for the country, they form a basic building block for the economy. Nigeria, being blessed with abundance of these natural minerals, has greatly enjoyed the benefit of it in the two areas mentioned above.
4 The use of fossil fuel has been embraced for major power generating project till date. This has led to a major challenge, why? The answer been that the mineral resources that we have enjoyed in the past years is depleted, hence subject to extinction. The fear of been suddenly thrown into darkness due to exhaustion of these minerals, is one of the motivating factors for a pro-active company like KENOL GROUP, earnestly striving to provide the well deserving people of Nigeria a way-out. One of the major advantages that this alternative has over the conventional use of fossil fuels is that it is renewable.
6 It has been observed that the earth as a resource system is limited in its capacity to support a growing population, going by the intense exchange of energy and materials with the environment. This has resulted in the need to seek more sustainable source of energy. The awareness of this need has led to the discovery of the energy that reaches the earth from the sun. The earth receives energy directly from the sun. The energy that it receives was discovered to have advantages of the energy generated through the use of fossil fuels, in that it does not generate the usual noise that is associated with fossil fuel driven generators (it is silent).
7 The energy was also observed not to be limited like the mineral resources used for energy generation (which are non renewable), the rising of the sun on a daily basis provides energy that is renewable and inexhaustible. Lastly, most fossil fuels, in the course of generating energy through the process of combustion, results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) or carbon monoxide (CO) waste product which lead to pollution. This makes the use of solar energy, green compliant, as it will not contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer.
8 Thus throughout the early phase of human development, the availability of the readily renewable sources of energy was a key constraint and affected the size and distribution of populations. The sun’s power reaching the earth is typically about 1000W/m2. The total amount of energy that the earth receives daily is 1353W/m2. Some 4million tons of the sun’s matter will continue to be changed into energy every second.The sun is the most readily and widely available renewable energy source capable of meeting the energy needs of whole world. It can provide more power than any fossil fuel on the planet
9 Having said all that, the question that needs to be answered is how do we convert/trap this energy from the sun and convert it into usable forms. This utilization of solar energy depends on its availability and appropriate technology. The idea of using the sun’s power has held scientists in its grip for centuries. Also, for most of its evolution, mankind relied for its sources of energy on constantly replenished materials. When the use of fire was discovered for the provision of heat and for the processing of food, the additional demand for energy was met by constantly renewed sources.
10 Later still when water and wind powers were harnessed to the service of mankind, the new sources were also of a renewable nature. The solar radiation arrives at the earth at a maximum flux density of about 1kw/m2 in wave length of band between 0.3 and 2.5μm.This is called short wave radiation and it includes visible spectrum. For habited areas fluxes received vary widely from about 3 to 30MJ/m2/day, depending on place, time and weather. The quality of radiation is characterized by the photon energy of around 2eV as determined by 6000K surface temperature of the sun.
11 Solar panels are made up of solar cells which are an array of photovoltaic cells (PV). Any type of equipment used to convert sunlight into energy is considered solar cell or panels. The technology behind Solar panels has varied widely throughout the five or six decades and while Solar cells were the true origin of modern solar panels, today researchers are shifting to new platform and approaches to gathering energy from sunlight which includes crafting solar cells from silicon, semiconductor configured to trap and convert sun energy which is collated in an antireflective coating and contained under a glass cover plate to protect the cell from the elements.
13 Nigeria is one of the tropical countries of the world which lies approximately between 4o and 13o with landmass of 9.24 x 105 km2, enjoys an average daily sunshine of 6.25 hrs, ranging between about 3.5 hrs at the coastal areas and 9.0 hrs at the far northern boundary. Her electrical energy consumption in the year 2001 is 15 x 106kWh. Its climate varies from tropical to subtropical. There are two main seasons; the dry season lasting from October to March and the rainy season lasting from April to October. In the north, it is hot and dry, rainy season extends between April and September. In the south, it is hot and wet, rainy season extends between March and December. From December to March there is a long dry season
14 Temperature at the coast rarely rises above 32oC Temperature at the coast rarely rises above 32oC. The north is drier with temperature range between 32oC and 42oC. Humidity is about 95%.
15 The terrestrial radiation on Nigeria’s land area is 2 The terrestrial radiation on Nigeria’s land area is x 1015 kWh / year. The Nigerian economy can be disaggregated into industry, transport, commercial, household, and agricultural sectors, with the household sector dominating energy consumption. The energy consuming activities in the household sector still remain mainly cooking, lighting, and operations of electrical appliances (i.e., non-substitutable electricity). The percentage distribution of the total final consumption in 1989 in this sector and in terms of the major energy carriers is Kerosene (13%), Electricity (4%), LPG (1%), and Wood/others (82%).
16 Nigeria’s economy face deepening challenges: a widening trade imbalance, growing competition from developed countries, a collapse of big manufacturing companies, and a sharp increase in the cost of doing business, all owing basically to energy and its related infrastructural costs. Energy demand far outweighs the supply which is epileptic in nature. It is still pertinent to note that our energy consumption is projected to grow geometrically while our ability to sustain our growth through energy generation, transmission and distribution continues to dwindle. Our capability to continue the trend for affordable energy will be severely tested in the coming decades.
18 Benefits of Solar Energy: 1. Solar energy is renewable Benefits of Solar Energy: 1. Solar energy is renewable. We never have to worry about running out of sunlight or using it all up. The sun is a consistent power source meaning it's always going to be there every day. 2. Solar energy is environmentally friendly. Compared to fossil fuels which release greenhouses gases, carcinogens and carbon dioxide, solar cells don't release anything into the air. 3. Solar panels are extremely reliable. There are no moving parts so you don't have to worry about replacing anything. In fact, most people generate electricity for 1000s of hours with little or no maintenance.
19 4. Solar cells make no noise while collecting energy 4. Solar cells make no noise while collecting energy. There are no other renewable energy sources that are completely silent.5. In the long run, solar electricity is cheaper than buying it from the power company. There is a start up cost, but then it starts paying for itself. Once you break even, everything after that is profit. Compare this to paying a monthly bill and getting no return on investment.6. There is a huge variety of solar panel systems available. Some can cost tens of thousands of dollars, and some cost just a couple hundred. This means anyone can get into solar, there's an entry point for just about everybody.
20 7. You're not required to connect to the power grid 7. You're not required to connect to the power grid. You can be completely self-sufficient and live off-the-grid. Imagine never paying another monthly bill or hook-up charge. 8. Sell excess electricity. If you build a large enough solar panel system, you can make your electric meter spin backwards. Most power companies will gladly buy or credit you for this excess electricity. Contact your local power companies for more details. 9. Solar technology is constantly improving. Solar installations are increasing by an incredible 50% every year, most of which are small homemade systems.
21 SOME LOCATIONS WHERE SOLAR LIGHT HAVE BEEN INSTALLED DAY WATERMAN COLLEGE, ABEOKUTA
28 Need for solar cell material development As a result of the discussion so far, it can be seen that Nigeria has all that it takes to benefit immensely from the use of solar energy, in that it is geographically located in such a way as to enjoy sunlight on a daily basis, the only constraint is the needed technology to trap this energy and convert it into forms that can be readily accessed by households and organizations as the need arises. In the area of needed mineral resources, it was discovered that Nigeria is blessed with the required mineral resources, some of which are silicon ores and other minerals. The country is so blessed that there is scarcely a State without one form of mineral endowment of the other.
29 Below is a general overview of the resources in some States; ABUJA Marble, Clay, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Gold (partially investigated), Lead /Zinc (Traces), Dolomite ABIA STATE Gold, Salt, Limestone, Lead/Zinc ADAMAWA STATE Kaolin, Bentonite, Gypsum, Magnetite AKWA IBOM STATE Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Uranium (Traced), Salt, Lignite (Traced) ANAMBRA STATE Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Iron-Ore, Lignite (Partially investigated), Salt, Glass-Sand, Phosphate, GypsumBAYELSA STATE Clay, Limestone, Gypsum (partially investigated), Uranium (partially investigated), Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc (Traces) BAUCHI STATE Amethyst (violet), Gypsum, Lead/Zinc (Traces), Uranium (partially investigated) BENUE STATE Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Iron-Ore, Coal, Clay, Marble, Salt, Berytes (traces), Gem stones, Gypsum BORNO STATE Diatomite, Clay, Limestone, Hydro-carbon (oil and gas, Partially investigated), Gypsum, Kaolin, Bentonite CROSS RIVER STATE Limestone, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc, Salt
30 DELTA STATE Marble, Glass Sand, Gypsum, Lignite, Iron-Ore, Kaolin EBONYI STATE Lead, Gold, Salt EDO STATE Marble, Lignite, Clay, Limestone, Iron Ore, Gypsum, Glass-sand, Gold, Dolomite Phosphate, Bitumen EKITI STATE Kaolin, Feldspar, Tatium, Granite, Syenite ENUGU STATE Coal, Limestone, Lead/Zinc GOMBE STATE Gemstone, Gypsum IMO STATE Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Lignite, Phosphate, Marcasite, Gypsum, Salt JIGAWAA STATE ButytesKADUNA STATE Sapphire, Kaolin, Gold, Clay, Surpentinite, Asbestos, Amethyst, Kyanite, Graphite (partially investigated), Silhnite, Mica (Traces), Aqua marine, Ruby, Rock Crystal, Topaz, Flosper, Tourmaline, Gemstone, TentalimeKANO STATE Prochinre, Cassiterite, Copper, Glass – Sand, Gemstone, Lead/Zinc, Tantalite KATSINA STATE Kaolin, Marble, Salt KEBBI STATE Gold KOGI STATE Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Gypsum, Feldspar, Goal, Marble, Dolomite, Talc, Tantalite KWARA STATE Gold, Marble, Iron-Ore, Cassiterite, Columbite, Tantalite, Feldspar (Traces), Mica (Traces) LAGOS STATE Glass-sand, Clay, Bitumen NASARAWA STATE Beryl (emerald), Aqua marine, Heliodor, Dolomite/Marble, Sapphire, Tourmaline, Quartz- Amethyst (Topaz, gamet), Zircon, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Columbite, Limonite, Galena, Iron-Ore, Barytes, Feldspar, Limestone, Mica, Cooking coal, Talc, Clay, Salt, Chalcopyrite NIGER STATE Gold, Talc, Lead/Zinc
31 OGUN STATE Phosphate, Clay, Feldspar (traces), Kaolin, Limestone, Gemstone, Bitumen ONDO STATE Bitumen, Kaolin, Gemstone, Gypsum, Feldspar, Granite, Clay, Glass-sand, Dimension stones, Limestone, Coal OSUN STATE Gild, Talc, Tourmaline, Columbite, Granite OYO STATE Kaolin, Marble, Clay, Sillimanite, Talc, Gold, Cassiterite, Aqua Marine, Dolomite, Gemstone, Tantalite PLATEAU STATE Emerald, Tin, Marble, Granite, Tantalite/Columbite, Lead/Zinc, Barytes, Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Belonite, Cassiterite, Phrochlore, Clay, Coal, Wolfram, Salt, Bismuth, Fluoride, Molybdenite, Gemstone, BauxiteRIVER STATE Glass-sand, Clay, Marble, Lignite (traces) SOKOTO STATE Kaolin, Gold, Limestone, Phosphate, Gypsum, silica-sand, Clay, Laterrite, Potash, Flakes, Granite, Gold, Salt TARABA STATE Kaolin, Lead/Zinc YOBE STATE Tintomite, Soda Ash (partially Investigated) ZAMFARA STATE Cotton, Gold
32 This shows that the limitation that the country is facing in the development of solar cell materials is due to our inability to effectively tap the abundant resource that we have and convert them to meaningful use. The process of tapping and converting these mineral resource will contribute immensely to the development of the Nigerian economy as the dependence on crude oil will reduce and other means of earning foreign exchange will come to the fore. More so, it will lead to creation of job opportunities through out the country. The materials for solar cells that will be developed / made available in the process will help solve one of the major issues facing the development of the country, which is power generation.
33 The provision of adequate power supply will help the growth of many SMEs that require power for the production of their goods and services, lead to adequate security, as there will be no more dark corners for perpetrating evil etc. It is therefore our humble submission at KENOL GROUP that there is an urgent need for us, as a country to begin to make adequate use of the mineral resources around us, especially in the area of providing materials required for Solar cell development.