Presentation on theme: "Workshop on Faculty Recruitment for Diversity and Excellence ADVANCE Program at the University of Michigan Strategies and Tactics for Recruiting to Improve."— Presentation transcript:
Workshop on Faculty Recruitment for Diversity and Excellence ADVANCE Program at the University of Michigan Strategies and Tactics for Recruiting to Improve Diversity and Excellence
2 Overview Why do we need to recruit a diverse faculty in order to attain excellence? What are the obstacles to achieving diversity on the faculty? What can we do?
3 Why do we need to recruit a diverse faculty in order to attain excellence? Gives us access to talent currently not represented A diverse faculty has positive effects on our diverse student body – at both undergraduate and graduate levels Carrell, Page, & West (2009). National Bureau of Economic Research.(14959), 1-42. Hale & Regev (2011). Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper, (2011-19).
4 Why do we need to recruit a diverse faculty in order to attain excellence? More perspectives are taken into account and fewer things taken for granted –A concept car designed by women and including many new features was also highly rated by men. –Compared with all-white juries, diverse juries deliberate more thoughtfully about an African American defendant. Ely & Thomas (2001). Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(2), 229-273. Page (2007). The Difference. Princeton University Press, 6-20. Sommers (2006). J Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4), 597-612. Temm (2008). In Schiebinger (Ed.), Gendered Innovation in Science and Engineering (pp. 131-149). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
5 Why is it difficult to recruit for diversity and excellence? Pool of candidates may be too homogeneous Partly true Perceptions vs. realities Perceptions may result from focus on single criterion Schemas about us Who we want Shaw & Stanton (2012). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279(1743), 3736-3741.
6 Single Criterion Within your discipline, think of a criterion that sometimes excludes candidates. Discuss at your tables.
7 Beyond the Pipeline Research suggests that expressed attitudes and explicit discrimination have been reduced in US society… Bobo, Kluegel, & Smith (1997). In Tuch & Martin (Eds.), Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change. (pp. 15-42). Westport, CT. Praeger. Dovidio & Gaertner (2000). Psychological Science, 11, 315-319. BUT… Research also shows that we all – regardless of the social groups we belong to – perceive and treat people differently based on their social groups (race/ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, disability, etc.). We are all subject to unconscious bias. Valian (1998) Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge: MIT Press, p. 280.
8 Schemas: Unconscious Hypotheses Schemas (expectations or stereotypes) influence our judgments of others regardless of our own group. All schemas influence group members’ expectations about how they will be judged.
9 Schemas do… allow rapid, but sometimes inaccurate, processing of information. often conflict with consciously held or “explicit” attitudes. change based on experience/exposure. Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu (2002). J Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902. Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald (2002). Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(1), 101-115.
10 Schemas are… Widely culturally shared –Both men and women hold them about gender. –Both whites and minorities hold them about race/ethnicity. –People are often not aware of them. Applied more under circumstances of: –Stress from competing tasks –Time pressure –Lack of critical mass –Ambiguity/including lack of information Implicit Association Test: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/ Dovidio & Gaertner (1998). In Eberhardt & Fiske (Eds.), Confronting racism: The problem and the response (pp. 3-32). Newbury Park: Sage. Dovidio & Gaertner (2000). Psychological Science, 11(4), 315-319. Fiske (2002). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(4), 123-128. Heilman (1980). Organizational Behavior and Human Performance(26), 386-395. Sackett, DuBois, & Noe (1991). J Applied Psychology, 76(2), 263-267. Valian (1998) Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge: MIT Press, p. 280. } Present in faculty searches
11 Schemas Affect Evaluation & Performance: Faculty Interviews I don’t walk into a classroom expecting that, especially, my white students, and particularly my white male students, will automatically accept that I’m a scholar in my area. My white colleagues can do that. And I think a lot of students come in expecting that “Oh, a black professor. I’m not going to learn that much about anything that’s real.” I think my white colleagues can teach about lettuce heads for like a whole semester, and that’s got nothing to do with what they’re supposed to be teaching and it’s automatically assumed that, really the knowledge is there, but this may just be sort of an eccentric person. I could not get away with that. Not at all. No. (AfAm, W, SS) Chesler, Young, & Beale. (2013). Faculty identities and the challenge of diversity: Reflections on teaching in higher education. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 57.
12 Schemas Affect Evaluation & Performance: Resume Studies Numerous studies show that schemas affect evaluation and performance. Identical Resumes
13 Evaluation of Identical CVs For a faculty position: Male and female psychology professors recommended for hire “Brian” over “Karen” as an assistant professor (2:1). For an undergraduate lab manager position: Male and female science professors rated male applicants more competent, more hireable, more suitable for mentoring, and offered higher salaries. For sales, administrative support, clerical and customer services positions: Similar findings for “Jamal” and “Greg” Brian Karen Steinpreis, Anders, & Ritzke (1999). Sex Roles, 41(7/8), 509-528. Moss-Racusin, Dovidio, Brescoll, Graham, & Handelsman (2012). PNAS 109(41), 16474-16479. Bertrand & Mullainathan (2003). American Economic Review, 94(1), 991-1013. Identical Application Packages
14 Evaluation of Identical Resumes: Sexual Identity Pairs of matched resumes sent for 5 different occupations in 7 different states –Overall, 40% fewer call backs for gay applicants –Largest difference in Ohio, Texas, Florida (as compared to California, New York, Nevada and Pennsylvania) Treasurer in Gay Student Organization Treasurer in Environmental Student Organization Tilcsik (2011) American J of Sociology, 117(2), 586-626. Additional Resource: Weichselbaumer (2003). Labour Economics, 10, 629-642.
15 Evaluation of Identical Resumes: Parental Status Correll, Benard, & Paik (2007). American J of Sociology, 112(5), 1297-1338. When evaluating equally qualified same-gender job applicants, Fathers… were rated as more committed to paid work than nonfathers. were offered higher starting salaries than nonfathers. Mothers… were rated as less competent and less committed to paid work than nonmothers. were less likely to be recommended for hire, promotion, and management, and were offered lower starting salaries than nonmothers. “nonfather” father Active in Parent Teacher Association “nonmother” mother Active in Parent Teacher Association
16 Musical Auditions: Gender Records from major US symphony orchestras from 1970-1996: Goldin & Rouse (2000). The American Economic Review, 90(4), 715-741. Audition data from 14,000 individuals show the use of a screen increases the probability that a woman will advance from preliminary rounds by 50%.
Exactly how do schemas affect the careers of women and under- represented minorities?
18 Letters of Recommendation for Successful Medical School Faculty Applicants Letters for men: Longer More references to: −CV −Publications −Patients −Colleagues Letters for women : Shorter More references to personal life More “doubt raisers” (hedges, faint praise, and irrelevancies) “It’s amazing how much she’s accomplished.” “It appears her health is stable.” “She is close to my wife.” Trix & Psenka (2003). Discourse & Society, 14(2), 191-220. Differences
19 U-M Examples of Doubt-Raisers Hedges: "Of the three Indian ladies we have here this year, she is perhaps the best." Faint Praise: "My overall impression is that when xx is motivated she brings enormous talent and energy and is very productive." Irrelevancies: "Over the past few years, she has learned to balance her intensity with more fun." Personal Life: "XX is also a devoted wife and mother of two children who manages these responsibilities efficiently, so that she can achieve the scholarship she desires."
20 Race Penalty in Grant Success 83,188 NIH grant applications from 40,069 individuals from 2000-2006. Differences in funding rate persists even after controlling for education and training, previous NIH experience, research productivity, and other factors. Ginther et al., (2011). Science, 333, 1015-1019. Wenneras & Wold (1997). Nature, 387, 341-343.
21 Student Evaluation of Teaching Credibility: Sexual Identity One male instructor provided the same guest lecture to 8 sections of a communication course. In half of the sections, he referred to “my partner” as Jennifer and in other half as Jason. The “straight” instructor received 22% more positive comments than the “gay” instructor. The “gay” instructor received five times as many critical comments as the “straight” instructor. Instructors who are members of minority groups may be perceived as less credible instructors. Russ, Simonds, & Hunt (2002). Communication Education, 51(3), 311-324.
22 Student Evaluation of Teaching Credibility: Race and Gender A woman of color faculty member says: “I think the first thing is to set the tone in the first class session that you are in charge. Don’t ever let that slip, because the moment you do, because you are a person of color, you will never regain that. It’s a cliche to a certain extent that if you are a person of color you have to come doubly prepared, because you get challenges in classroom settings that your peers simply won’t ever get.” A white male faculty member says: “Are there things I can do in the classroom because of who I am that I can get away with that other people can’t? Absolutely. Fabulous things. Oh my G-d! I can make errors, I can make mistakes, I can have a bad day, I can be disorganized. I can use terms incorrectly, which most people of color can’t use, or they’d be nailed – not only by the majority students but also by the minority students.”
23 Impact of Schemas on Leadership With single sex groups, observers most often identify the person at the head of the table as the leader. With mixed sex groups –a male seated at the head of the table is still most often identified as the leader. –a female seated at the head of the table is identified as the leader only half as often as a man at the head of the table is. Porter & Geis (1981). Gender and nonverbal behavior (pp. 39–61). New York: Springer Verlag.
24 Biased Leadership Outcomes Burrelli (2011). InfoBrief, NSF 11-303, 1-8. Jeang (2011). Telephone Interview. Mervis (2005). Science 310, 606-607. (Updated from http://www.asbmb.org/Page.aspx?id=102&terms=governance) http://dpcpsi.nih.gov/council/roster.aspx Being “white” is positively associated with leadership Rosette, et al. (2008). J Applied Psychology, 93(4), 758-777. Sy, et al. (2010). J Applied Psychology, 95(5), 902-919. Positions of Leadership for Asians/Asian Americans percent Stereotypes about East Asians show that competence is accepted, but warmth and dominance are not. Berdahl & Min. (2012). Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(2): 141-152.
25 Schemas Affect Performance: Stereotype Threat Steele, Spencer, & Aronson (2002), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379-440. Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling, & Darley. (1999). J Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1213-1227. Stroessner & Good. (n.d.). ReducingStereotypeThreat.org. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/ Being in a situation in which one could be seen or judged in terms of negative group schemas (stereotypes). Many studies show that stereotype threat causes underperformance, that it can be manipulated by circumstances –In terms of performance, motivation, and career choices
26 Test Performance by Stereotype Threat Condition Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele, Brown. (1999). J Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 29-46. Spencer, Steele, & Quinn. (2005). J Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4-28. Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: And other clues to how stereotypes affect us. New York: Norton. Steele & Aronson (1995), J Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797.
27 Math Test Performance of Asian American Women Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady (1999). Psychological Science, 10(1), 80-83. questionnaire given before test “primes” for a particular identity Math Test Accuracy greater effect on those who care the most Stereotype Threat Stereotype Lift
28 Schemas and Their Effects From Your Experience We have discussed examples of schemas and how they may affect evaluation as well as performance. Can you tell us a story about a time when personal identity has affected others’ interactions with you or someone you observed (positive or negative)? Age Discipline Race / Ethnicity Gender Religion Parent Status Sexual Identity Ability Status Region You Live In Class Nationality
29 Accumulation of Advantage and Disadvantage… Some of these examples may have seemed minor, but… Because small imbalances and disadvantages accrue, minor slights can have major consequences in salary, promotion, and prestige, including advancement to leadership positions. “Mountains are molehills piled one on top of the other.” (Valian, 1998, p. 4) Similarly, minor advantages accrue to produce major benefits. Casadevall & Handelsman (2014). mBio 5:1-4. Merton (1948). Antioch Review, 8, 193-210 and (1968). Science, 159, 56-63. Valian (1998). Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge: MIT Press, p. 280.
30 Evaluation bias Unless we take action, the cycle reproduces itself Accumulation of disadvantage Stereotypethreat Underestimation of ability Lowered success rate Schemas and Lack of critical mass
32 #1 – Build an Effective Search Committee Require and reward a high level of commitment. Include people openly committed to diversity and excellence. Include women and minorities when possible. Remember to take account of this service when making other assignments. Be aware of unconscious bias, stereotype threat, and the challenges of evaluation (e.g. train committees via STRIDE workshops).
33 #2 – Actively Develop a Diverse Pool of Applicants Network directly with young scholars, including your own students. Invite them to speak. Foster connections with other institutions to identify and track promising candidates. Widen the pool from which you recruit: actively pursue candidates thriving at less well-ranked institutions. Recruiting begins before you have a position.
34 #3 – Define Your Search as Broadly as Possible English Department … excited to consider a broad range of areas of specialization. Philosophy Department: Area of Specialization (AOS): Open. Area of Competence (AOC): Open. The Department is open to the possibility of interdisciplinary appointments. Anthropology Department …faculty positions in sociocultural anthropology, rank open… Physics Department …considering applications in all areas of physics represented in the department… See purple handout.
35 Define Your Search as Broadly as Possible Job description should include as many areas as possible Consider broadly defined searches with one committee for all positions “Open [broadly- defined] searches led to both a larger number of applicants AND a more diverse applicant pool.” Change in outcomes for one UM department
36 #4 – Ask for Information You Need from Applicants To ensure efficiency of search process –Provide a template or checklist with clear instructions for applicants. –Clearly describe the audience for their application (e.g., faculty from other areas).
37 #5 – Make Sustained and Conscious Efforts to Counter Potential Evaluation Bias Be aware of evaluation bias. Make sure your committee works to actively counteract it. Discuss and define evaluation criteria in advance. Design organized evaluations that combine examination of written materials and direct contact with the candidate. Consider the environment in which achievements were made. Avoid global evaluations and summary rankings; acknowledge uncertainty. Bauer & Baltes (2002). Sex Roles, 47(9-10), 465-476. Kahneman (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011
38 Use Specific Criteria that Value Diversity and Excellence to Evaluate at All Stages http://www.umich.edu/%7Eadvproj/CandidateEvaluationTool.doc Potential for (evidence of) scholarly impact Potential for (evidence of) research productivity Potential for (evidence of) research funding Potential for (evidence of) collaboration Fit with department’s priorities Ability to make positive contribution to department’s climate Potential (demonstrated ability) to attract and supervise diverse graduate students Potential (demonstrated ability) to teach and supervise diverse undergraduates Potential (demonstrated ability) to be a conscientious university community member Potential (demonstrated ability) to mentor diverse students Please rate the candidate on each of the following: excellent good neutral fair poor unable to judge
39 #6 – Provide a Welcoming Environment During the Interview Try to interview more than one female/minority candidate to avoid the effects of solo status/‘tokenism’. Treat all applicants as valuable scholars and educators, not representatives of a social group. Ensure that all candidates meet a diverse set of people so that they are more likely to meet someone like them. This may include graduate and undergraduate students. Ask the candidate whom s/he would like to meet. Heilman (1980). Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26(3), 386-395. Huffcutt & Roth (1998). J Applied Psychology, 83(2), 179-189.
40 # 7 – Encourage Circumstances that Will Allow You to See the Candidate at Their Best Provide information well ahead of the visit regarding schedule, expectations, audience, Q&A culture, etc. Manage the visit – identify a host who can set the tone for each activity or event. Invite people to job talk to maximize diversity. Provide a good introduction at the seminar, stressing candidate’s expertise. Consider altering undesirable cues in the environment. Latu, I. M., Mast, M. S., Lammers, J., & Bombari, D. (2013). J of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(3), 444-448. Sekaquaptewa & Thompson (2002). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(5), 694-707.
41 Show Off the Department as It Is or You Would Like It to Be, Not as It Once Was Who belongs?
42 Your unit should provide an information packet to all candidates with U-M and School/College policies. Be aware that dual career support from the Provost’s Office is available to domestic partners of faculty recruits regardless of marital status or sexual identity. Department Chairs and Associate Deans request assistance through their Deans as part of the recruiting process. Support for dual careers enhances both recruitment and retention of all faculty. #8 – Ensure That All Candidates Know About Dual Career Support and Family Friendly Policies
43 Dual Career Services at U-M In 2013-2014, the dual career staff in the Provost’s Office, LSA, and Medicine/Engineering responded to total of 248 requests for assistance placing partners. Of the 96 cases handled by the Provost’s Office, 59 of the partners were offered positions and 37 accepted (a success rate of almost 40%)
44 Be Sensitive to the Unique Challenges Faced by LGBT Candidates LGBT candidates know: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual individuals are not protected by federal EEO regulations. As of June 2013, valid marriages are recognized for federal purposes, including immigration. The State of Michigan does not recognize same-sex couples. The State of Michigan permits single LGBT individuals to petition to adopt but prohibits joint adoption. We also want LGBT candidates to know that the University makes efforts to overcome this climate: Benefits are provided to “Otherwise Qualified Adults”. Offers can include support for legal needs.
45 #9 – Consider Only Job-Relevant Criteria Interviews should only evaluate qualifications that are relevant to a faculty position – questions about matters that are not job relevant (e.g., family status) are not appropriate. Search Committee should not seek or discuss information about the existence of a dual career partner or family status of the candidate. Chart of appropriate and inappropriate questions is available on your STRIDE jump drive and on the University HR website: http://www.hr.umich.edu/empserv/department/empsel/legalchart.html
46 * Actual situations derived from an ADVANCE survey of UM candidates who withdrew from searches or turned down offers. The Unintended Consequences of Personal Questions*
47 Do you have a partner who will be coming on the visit and might want to learn more about job options in Ann Arbor? The university and my department are really supportive of your partner’s job search. This is a friendly department, where everyone helps one another out. The Unintended Consequences of Personal Questions UM faculty member Job candidate
48 What the candidate actually infers and says… I don’t have a two- body problem. “I might choose to live in a different place from my husband. I was not treated equally.” “I got nonstop questions about family issues from the faculty. Nobody asked my husband about family issues.” “Obviously they didn’t want to offer a job to someone who was going to have a problem.” UM faculty member Job candidate
49 Do you have school-aged children or will you want to learn more about schools in Ann Arbor during your visit? The University of Michigan, this Department, and our faculty are family friendly. Not only that, but Ann Arbor is a great place to raise a family. The Unintended Consequences of Personal Questions UM faculty member Job candidate
50 What the candidate actually infers and says… No. “I figured the reason they asked me about whether I had kids was that they wanted to figure out whether it would be hard for me to move. Obviously it was a negative.” “A senior male asked me if I was going to have children. Just like that. I said what I was trained to say: No.” UM faculty member Job candidate
51...So What Should I Do? What if a candidate mentions a dual career issue or asks about family life/schools in Ann Arbor? Answer the question asked. Do not ask questions to gather further information from the candidate. As necessary, identify other resources outside the search committee.
52 #10 – Recruit the Selected Candidate After a candidate is selected, aggressive recruiting begins. Now, all factors relevant to attracting the candidate to Ann Arbor and UM should be discussed.
53 Negotiation Negotiation process should convey that the goal in deciding the terms of the offer is to create conditions for success. Provide all candidates with a complete list of items to discuss in the course of negotiations. This list will vary by field, and should include those items that will maximize the likelihood of candidate success in that field.
54 A Successful Search is Just the Beginning! Build a culture of search excellence. Reflect on your search and provide a report suggesting improved approaches for the future. Work with colleagues to create a culture in which new faculty will thrive and succeed. The ADVANCE Program can help. http://advance.umich.edu Phone: (734) 647-9359 E-mail: email@example.com