Presentation on theme: "Big Thanks: -Abigail Stewart (Univ. of Mich.) -Meg Urry (Yale Univ.) Slides References Information Plenary Talk for the AAS Winter meeting in Seattle?"— Presentation transcript:
Big Thanks: -Abigail Stewart (Univ. of Mich.) -Meg Urry (Yale Univ.) Slides References Information Plenary Talk for the AAS Winter meeting in Seattle?
Schemas: Non-conscious Hypotheses Expectations or stereotypes influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Gender: Men judging women; women judging women Men and women BOTH downplay the contributions of women Race/ethnicity Whites judging minorities; minorities judging minorities Whites and minorities BOTH downplay the contributions of minorities Unconscious bias is NOT discrimination
Schemas … influence group members expectations about how they will be judged. allow efficient, if sometimes inaccurate, processing of information. often conflict with consciously held or explicit attitudes. change based on experience/exposure. Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald (2002). Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 6, 101-115. Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu (2002). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902.
Schemas are culturally shared Both men and women hold them about gender. Both whites and people of color hold them about race/ethnicity. People are often not aware of them. Fiske (2002). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128.
Schemas are applied more often under circumstances of: Lack of critical mass Time pressure Stress from competing tasks Ambiguity (including lack of information) Fiske (2002). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128.
When Do Schemas Affect Evaluation Outcomes? Resumes Job credentials Fellowships Hiring Awards Promotion
Unconscious Bias: Gender Teams of male and female university psych profs (search committees) Evaluate candidates for an open position (assist prof of psych) Application packages for Karen and Brian are identical except for name Search committees preferred 2:1 to hire Brian over Karen When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed 4 times more often when the name was female. Brian Karen Steinpreis, Anders, & Ritzke (1999) Sex Roles, 41, 509.
Unconscious Bias: Mothers When evaluating identical applications: Evaluators rated mothers as less competent and committed to paid work than nonmothers. Prospective employers called mothers back about half as often. Mothers were less likely to be recommended for hire, promotion, and management. Mothers were offered lower starting salaries. Nonmother Mother Correll, Benard and Paik (2007) American Journal of Sociology, 112 (5), 1297-1338. Active in PTA
Unconscious Bias: Fathers When evaluating identical applications: Fathers were not disadvantaged in the hiring process. Fathers were seen as more committed to paid work. Fathers were offered higher starting salaries. Nonfather Father Correll, Benard and Paik (2007) American Journal of Sociology, 112 (5), 1297-1338. Active in PTA
Critical Mass Affects Use of Schemas When there are many individuals, we differentiate among them and cannot rely on group-based schemas. In both experimental and field settings, increasing the female share of those being rated increased ratings of female applicants and employees. Valian (1998) Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge: MIT Press, p. 280; Heilman (1980) Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26: 386-395; Sackett et al (1991), Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2): 263-267.
Accumulation of Advantage and Disadvantage… Any one slight may seem minor, but since small imbalances and disadvantages accrue, they can have major consequences in Salary Promotion Prestige Advancement to leadership positions. Mountains are molehills piled one on top of the other. (Valian, 1998, p. 4) Merton (1948) Antioch Review, 8, 193-210 and (1968) Science, 159, 56-63. Valian (1998) Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge: MIT Press, p. 280.
Impact of Schemas on Careers: Processes for Different Groups Are Similar o Importance and impact of schemas o Lack of critical mass leads to reliance on schemas o Evaluation bias operates o Accumulation of disadvantages operates
What Can We Do about Unconscious Bias? Awareness Policies Practices Accountability BIAS Example: Search Committee
How do we start a job search? 1. Form a search committee 2. Write an ad targeting a specific sub-discipline 3. Advertize the position 4. Wait for the applications to pour in 0. Recruitment of the Applicant Pool If you follow this standard practice, odds are that the racial and gender diversity of your applicant pool will look a lot like your current dept. If you want the pool to be more diverse, you have to work a bit harder.
Recruitment of the Applicant Pool Recruit proactively year- round Recruit from wider range of institutions Recruit specifically for underrepresented groups Use of open searches (broad vs. narrow job definitions) If possible, advertize for multiple positions at once (cluster hiring).
Active Recruiting Widen the range of institutions from which you recruit. Consider candidates, including women and minorities, who may currently be thriving at less well-ranked institutions. They may be there because of: Early career decisions based on factors other than ranking of institution Early career decisions based on factors other than ranking of institution Past discrimination by top tier institutions Past discrimination by top tier institutions Candidates own internalization of schemas Candidates own internalization of schemas
Search Committee: Composition Matters Study of Racial Diversity in Jury Deliberations: Compared with all-white juries, diverse juries deliberating about an African American defendant: Took longer to discuss the case Mentioned more facts Made fewer inaccurate statements Left fewer inaccurate statements uncorrected Discussed more race-related issues Jury deliberations are analogous to faculty search deliberations. Sommers (2006) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (4), 597-612.
How do we continue a job search? 1. Search committee picks best candidates 2. Applications sit in a file drawer in chairs office 3. Faculty invited to browse through the files 4. Best candidates are invited to campus This is the easiest, least painful way to go through this process. Efforts may be made to avoid conscious bias and prejudice, but opportunities abound for unconscious bias to dominate the selection.
Focus on Multiple Specific Criteria during Evaluation Decrease ambiguity of the criteria for the job. Specify evaluations of scholarly productivity research funding teaching ability fit with the departments priorities. Weigh judgments that reflect examination of all materials and direct contact with the candidate. Consistent use of evidence Increase/document knowledge of candidates Avoid use of global judgments Bauer and Baltes, 2002, Sex Roles 9/10, 465.
Letters of Recommendation for Successful Medical School Faculty Applicants: Differences Letters for men: Longer More references to: CV Publications Patients Colleagues Letters for women : Shorter More references to personal life More doubt raisers (hedges, faint praise, and irrelevancies) Its amazing how much shes accomplished. It appears her health is stable. She is close to my wife. Trix & Psenka (2003) Discourse & Society, Vol 14(2): 191-220.
How should we evaluate candidates? 1. Set criteria before looking at applications 2. Evaluate all applications based on the same criteria 3. All candidates that meet the criteria become part of the long short list 4. All long short list candidates get phone interviews
Excellence has no gender or race or sexual orientation
Speakers How Did I Get Here? - Role of Unconscious Bias in Career Paths Patricia Knezek (NOAO/WIYN Consortium, Inc.) Nibbled to Death by Ducks: The Accumulation of Disadvantage Caroline E. Simpson (Florida International Univ.) Actions by Junior Faculty in Addressing Unconscious Bias Michele Montgomery (Univ. of Central Florida)