Presentation on theme: "CLIMATE & The Water Cycle. Climate I. Earth's Energy A. Transfer of energy 1. convection- the movement of energy caused by differences in density 2. conduction-"— Presentation transcript:
Climate I. Earth's Energy A. Transfer of energy 1. convection- the movement of energy caused by differences in density 2. conduction- the transfer of energy when two substances touch each other 3. radiation- the flow of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves through empty space VIDVID B. Insolation- INcoming SOLar radiATION 1.the intensity of insolation depends on -angle of insolation -duration of insolation -surface texture and color VIDVID VID2VID2
II. Angle of Insolation- the higher the angle the more intense the energy A. Depends on latitude, season and time of day. B. Latitude- the suns rays are most intense in the tropics 1. 23 1/2 0 N (Tropic of Cancer) to 23 1/2 0 S (Tropic of Capricorn) -only in the tropics will the suns rays be directly overhead. 2. As your latitude increases the angle of the suns rays decrease
C. Energy in the Atmosphere 1. condensation and freezing release energy 2. melting and evaporation absorb energy 3. Evaporation increases-the temp. increases, the surface area increases and the wind is blowing.
C. At sunrise an sunset the angle is lowest and it will be highest at noon for any location. D. The angle of the suns rays are highest on the first day of summer and lowest on the first day of winter. E. The duration of insolation-the length of time the sun is above the horizon varies with latitude and season. 1. Throughout the year the average of the total duration of insolation is always equal. 2. During the summer the duration of insolation is greater than the winter. -on the equinox there is equal duration of day and night. VIDVID
F. Absorption and radiation: -dark rough surfaces will absorb more energy while lighter smooth surfaces will reflect more energy ex. snow covered field=reflected much energy forest=absorb much energy
G. Reflection- the bouncing back of radiation waves 1. clouds reflect half the light falling on them. H. Terrestrial Radiation 1. energy in the form of visible light makes it through the atmosphere and reaches the Earth's surface. 2. The energy is radiated back out to the atmosphere in a longer infrared wavelength. 3. The longer infrared wavelengths are absorbed by gasses such as carbon dioxide and water vapor and remain trapped in the atmosphere=Greenhouse Effect. -it is called the greenhouse effect because the glass in a greenhouse traps heat in the same way.
III. Insolation Temperature Lag 1. Daily the maximum angle of insolation is at noon, but maximum temperatures don't occur until mid-afternoon. 2. Yearly the maximum angle of insolation occurs on June 21st, but the maximum temperatures don't occur until July or August.
V. Climate Classification VIDVID A. Based on the yearly conditions of temperature and precipitation. B. Temperature-generally warmer towards the equator and colder toward the poles. 1. Will be influenced by local conditions C. Humidity- classified as humid or arid(dry) 1.Determined by the balance between precipitation and the potential for evaporation. P/E p ratio range-see handout with map VI. Factors that effect climate=see outline packet.
I. Water Cycle-circulation of water between the Earth and the atmosphere Oceans=97%, Glaciers=2% Surface and Ground water=1% A. Processes by which water enters the atmosphere 1. Transpiration- process by which plants release water vapor 2.Evaporation-water to water vapor 3.Evapotranspiration=combination of both fueled by the sun 4. 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceans=most vapor in atmosphere is from the oceans B. Precipitation: process by which water returns to the Earth. VID VID2VIDVID2
II. Ground water-water that infiltrates the surface of the Earth. A. Distinct Zones 1.Zone of saturation: all the pore spaces, cracks and other openings in the rock are completely full of water. water will stop flowing down when it hits the impermeable layer. 2. Zone of Aeration: above the zone of saturation- the spaces are filled with air. 3.Water Table: the boundary between the two zones. 4. As the water flows through the Earth the soil acts like a filter removing any impurities
B. Factors affecting ground water movement and storage 1. Porosity-the amount of pore space in a material compared with its volume. VIDVID * % of empty space a. determines how much water or air a sample of rock can hold.
b. for soil it depends on shape-round = more porous packing-tightly packed=less porous variety of sizes-if all the sizes are the same= more porous, the greater the mixture of sizes = less porous
2.Permeability: ability of soil to transmit water a. Depends of size of pores and how well they are connected. sand-high permeability because it has large pores that are well connected clay-low permeability-small pores that are not will connected
3. Capillarity: the ability of a soil to draw water upward against gravity. the smaller the particles the more surface area and the greater the capillarity