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How Does Heat Energy Travel and Insolation

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Presentation on theme: "How Does Heat Energy Travel and Insolation"— Presentation transcript:

1 How Does Heat Energy Travel and Insolation

2 Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight)
Worksheet Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight) Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon Duration of Insolation: Length of time from sunrise to sunset that the sun is in the sky

3 Absorption of Insolation: Taking in of sunlight
Reflection of Insolation: Process in which energy waves bounce off a surface or interface/boundary Terrestrial Radiation: the longer infrared heat waves radiated by Earth

4 The strength of insolation depends on: the angle of insolation, the duration of insolation, and the type of surface the insolation strikes The noon sun has the greatest angle of insolation

5 In the N Hemisphere the lowest noontime angle of insolation is reached at the winter solstice
Vertical ray: sunlight that strikes Earth’s surface at an angle of 90 degrees, which occurs everyday at noon somewhere in the tropics

6 Duration of insolation (in notes)
As the angle of insolation and the duration of insolation increases, temperatures at Earth’s surface increase Duration of insolation varies greatly with latitude


8 Absorption of Insolation by the Atmosphere (in notes)
Earth absorbs most of the sunlight that falls on it Ozone and other gases in the upper atmosphere absorb high-energy radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays

9 Long-wave radiation, such as infrared, is absorbed by water and carbon dioxide
Some absorbed energy is changed into heat waves that reradiate back into the atmosphere


11 This cold water is rich in oxygen and nutrients
El Nino Under normal conditions in the Pacific, water moves upward from deep ocean currents along western S.A. This cold water is rich in oxygen and nutrients

12 When there is less upward movement and the warmer surface is not as productive, there are less fish/plants Usually happens around Christmas It can create extra rainfall in the Eastern Pacific and droughts in the Western Pacific

13 El Nino shows the strong influence of oceans on the atmosphere

14 El Nino: A warming event that is caused by warm ocean currents that result in major climatic consequences around the world

15 La Nina: Exceptionally cold water in the Pacific Ocean that affects worldwide climate
Global warming: Since the early 1980s, there has been a trend of rising temperatures



18 Reflection of Insolation
Clouds reflect roughly half of the light falling on them Ice and snow reflect a large amount of insolation and absorb very little

19 Black road surfaces generally absorb over 90% of the solar energy
Calm water is a good reflector when the sun is low, but absorbs most of the sunlight when the sun is high in the sky

20 Terrestrial radiation
Energy waves sent back into space from Earth’s surface are longer in wavelength than energy waves in the range of visible light emitted from the sun Longer infrared heat waves are absorbed by gases such as CO2 and water vapor

21 This traps the heat and is known as the greenhouse effect
Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be too cold for most familiar forms of life Too much greenhouse effect can make it too hot

22 Greenhouse effect We are adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by cutting down forests, burning fossil fuels, and increasing methane amounts (by- product of petroleum and decaying organic matter)


24 Insolation-Temperature lag
A time lag exists between the time of greatest intensity of insolation and the highest air temperature This occurs because insolation energy is first absorbed by Earth’s surface and then re- radiated as heat energy that warms the air Lag means delay

25 At noon- incoming radiation reaches a max, and the ground continues to absorb energy for 2-3 more hours than it radiates Once Earth radiates more than it absorbs from the sun, Earth cools The daily high temp. usually happens around 2-3 pm

26 Greenhouse Effect According to al gore

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