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FILL-IN NOTES.  Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight)  Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon  Duration of Insolation:

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Presentation on theme: "FILL-IN NOTES.  Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight)  Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon  Duration of Insolation:"— Presentation transcript:

1 FILL-IN NOTES

2  Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight)  Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon  Duration of Insolation: Length of time from sunrise to sunset that the sun is in the sky

3  Absorption of Insolation: Taking in of sunlight  Reflection of Insolation: Process in which energy waves bounce off a surface or interface/boundary  Terrestrial Radiation: the longer infrared heat waves radiated by Earth

4  The strength of insolation depends on: the angle of insolation, the duration of insolation, and the type of surface the insolation strikes  The noon sun has the greatest angle of insolation

5  In the N Hemisphere the lowest noontime angle of insolation is reached at the winter solstice  Vertical ray: sunlight that strikes Earth’s surface at an angle of 90 degrees, which occurs everyday at noon somewhere in the tropics

6  As the angle of insolation and the duration of insolation increases, temperatures at Earth’s surface increase  Duration of insolation varies greatly with latitude

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8  Earth absorbs most of the sunlight that falls on it  Ozone and other gases in the upper atmosphere absorb high-energy radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays

9  Long-wave radiation, such as infrared, is absorbed by water and carbon dioxide  Some absorbed energy is changed into heat waves that reradiate back into the atmosphere

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11  Under normal conditions in the Pacific, water moves upward from deep ocean currents along western S.A.  This cold water is rich in oxygen and nutrients

12  When there is less upward movement and the warmer surface is not as productive, there are less fish/plants  Usually happens around Christmas  It can create extra rainfall in the Eastern Pacific and droughts in the Western Pacific

13  El Nino shows the strong influence of oceans on the atmosphere

14  El Nino: A warming event that is caused by warm ocean currents that result in major climatic consequences around the world

15  La Nina: Exceptionally cold water in the Pacific Ocean that affects worldwide climate  Global warming: Since the early 1980s, there has been a trend of rising temperatures

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18  Clouds reflect roughly half of the light falling on them  Ice and snow reflect a large amount of insolation and absorb very little

19  Black road surfaces generally absorb over 90% of the solar energy  Calm water is a good reflector when the sun is low, but absorbs most of the sunlight when the sun is high in the sky

20  Energy waves sent back into space from Earth’s surface are longer in wavelength than energy waves in the range of visible light emitted from the sun  Longer infrared heat waves are absorbed by gases such as CO2 and water vapor

21  This traps the heat and is known as the greenhouse effect  Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be too cold for most familiar forms of life  Too much greenhouse effect can make it too hot

22  We are adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by cutting down forests, burning fossil fuels, and increasing methane amounts (by- product of petroleum and decaying organic matter)

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24  A time lag exists between the time of greatest intensity of insolation and the highest air temperature  This occurs because insolation energy is first absorbed by Earth’s surface and then re- radiated as heat energy that warms the air  Lag means delay

25  At noon- incoming radiation reaches a max, and the ground continues to absorb energy for 2-3 more hours than it radiates  Once Earth radiates more than it absorbs from the sun, Earth cools  The daily high temp. usually happens around 2-3 pm

26  Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect


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