2Water Cycle: Water’s never-ending pattern of movement from the surface to the atmosphere and back. Water Cycle
3energy absorbed or released in a change of state LATENT HEAT:energy absorbed or released in a change of stateWater’s Phase Changes: Energy is released during freezing and condensation making the surroundings slightly warmer, and consumed during vaporization and melting making it cooler. (page 1 in tables)
5Water Cycle TermsPrecipitation: Any form of water that falls from the sky.Runoff: When water flows across the Earth’s surface. Occurs due to an impermeable surface or heavy precipitation. (accumulates eventually in oceans)Infiltration: When water seeps into the ground. Occurs when the surface is permeable and the ground is not saturated.Evaporation: When water is converted into vapor and rises into the atmosphere.Transpiration: (evapotranspiration) When water evaporates from the leaves of trees, plants, grass etc.Condensation: When water vapor turns into liquid to form clouds. Requires saturated air and a condensation nuclei.
6Pore Space: Holes or air pockets in soil or rock layers Porosity: The percentage of pore space within a material, determined by sorting, packing, and shape of particles.Permeability: The ability of a substance to allow water to pass through it. Requires pore space and interconnectedness. PermeabilityCapillarity: (capillary action) The upward movement of water within a substance. OccursIn material with small,but connected pores.
9Water Budget: System of moisture income and outgo for an area Precipitation: main source of water incomePotential Evapotranspiration : water that has the potential to evapotranspire back into the atmosphere (high during the summer)Storage: (snow piles, ground water and ponds)Change in storage (usage)Actual Evapotranspiration: water that actually did evapotranspire back into the atmosphereDeficit: when the amount evapotranspiration exceeds the amount of precipitation (drought: usually summer)Surplus: when the amount of precipitation exceeds the amount of potential evapotranspiration (flooding: Spring time rainy season and melting snow piles)
10When PE greater than P : arid and time of drought or deficit
11FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CLIMATE 1) Latitude: As latitude decreases, the yearly temperature increases. The latitude will also determine the general amount of precipitation that will accumulate due to wet and dry lines being created as a result of diverging and converging winds. (p 14)2) Nearness to a large body of water or the center of a landmass: Coastal regions have a smaller range in yearly temperature and a greater amount of rainfall. Continental centers have a greater yearly temperature range and less precipitation.3) Altitude: The higher a location’s elevation, the colder it is.
12CLIMATE FACTORS CONTINUED Nearness To a Mountain Range: Locations on the Windward side of a mountain range will be cooler and have much more precipitation while the Leeward side will be arid (dry) and warmer.
13CLIMATE FACTORS CONTINUED Ocean Currents: Currents tend to warm temperatures of eastern coastal areas and cool temps. of western coastal locations. Most northern currents flow clockwise while southern currents move counterclockwise.
14Primary source of energy for earth is the SUN!!!!
15Insolation: stands for Incoming Solar Radiation The intensity of sunlight that we get depends on the angle the sun strikes the earth.The angle of insolation depends on your latitude and the season
16NYS never receives the 90 degree sunrays because we are too far north.
17Reason for the Seasons = TILT YouTube - geography seasons
18Summer Solstice : June 21 Northern hemisphere leaning toward sun Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees North latitude)gets direct sunrays longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere
19Winter Solstice: December 21 southern hemisphere leaning toward the sun Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degree South Latitude) gets direct sunrays longest day of the year in the southern hemisphere
20Spring (March 21) and Fall (Sept 21) Equinox neither hemisphere leaning toward the sun equator (O latitude) gets direct sunrays equal hours of day and night from north pole to south pole
26Energy AbsorptionSolar energy is absorbed by the ground quickly and by the water slowly.When energy tries to strike the earth’s surface it can be:Absorbed (best by dark and rough materials)Reflected (best by light colored and smooth materials)Scattered (by dust particles and water droplets in atmosphere)
27Anytime large amounts of dust or smoke ejected into atmosphere it decreases atmospheric transparency and allows for a lot of insolation scattering. This will then decrease overall surface temperatures and perhaps be followed by cooler, rainy season.
28Ozone: found in upper layers of atmosphere filters dangerous UV radiation Ozone is depleting