Presentation on theme: "Water Cycle and Climate. Water Cycle: Water’s never-ending pattern of movement from the surface to the atmosphere and back. Water CycleWater Cycle."— Presentation transcript:
Water Cycle and Climate
Water Cycle: Water’s never-ending pattern of movement from the surface to the atmosphere and back. Water CycleWater Cycle
LATENT HEAT: energy absorbed or released in a change of state Water’s Phase Changes: Energy is released during freezing and condensation making the surroundings slightly warmer, and consumed during vaporization and melting making it cooler. (page 1 in tables)
Water Cycle Terms Precipitation: Any form of water that falls from the sky. Runoff: When water flows across the Earth’s surface. Occurs due to an impermeable surface or heavy precipitation. (accumulates eventually in oceans) Infiltration: When water seeps into the ground. Occurs when the surface is permeable and the ground is not saturated. Evaporation: When water is converted into vapor and rises into the atmosphere. Transpiration: (evapotranspiration) When water evaporates from the leaves of trees, plants, grass etc. Condensation: When water vapor turns into liquid to form clouds. Requires saturated air and a condensation nuclei.
Pore Space: Holes or air pockets in soil or rock layers Porosity: The percentage of pore space within a material, determined by sorting, packing, and shape of particles. Permeability: The ability of a substance to allow water to pass through it. Requires pore space and interconnectedness. Permeability Permeability Capillarity: (capillary action) The upward movement of water within a substance. Occurs In material with small, but connected pores.
Water Budget: System of moisture income and outgo for an area Precipitation: main source of water income Potential Evapotranspiration : water that has the potential to evapotranspire back into the atmosphere (high during the summer) Storage: (snow piles, ground water and ponds) Change in storage (usage) Actual Evapotranspiration: water that actually did evapotranspire back into the atmosphere Deficit: when the amount evapotranspiration exceeds the amount of precipitation (drought: usually summer) Surplus: when the amount of precipitation exceeds the amount of potential evapotranspiration (flooding: Spring time rainy season and melting snow piles)
When PE greater than P : arid and time of drought or deficit
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CLIMATE 1) Latitude: As latitude decreases, the yearly temperature increases. The latitude will also determine the general amount of precipitation that will accumulate due to wet and dry lines being created as a result of diverging and converging winds. (p 14) 2) Nearness to a large body of water or the center of a landmass: Coastal regions have a smaller range in yearly temperature and a greater amount of rainfall. Continental centers have a greater yearly temperature range and less precipitation. 3) Altitude: The higher a location’s elevation, the colder it is.
CLIMATE FACTORS CONTINUED Nearness To a Mountain Range: Locations on the Windward side of a mountain range will be cooler and have much more precipitation while the Leeward side will be arid (dry) and warmer.
CLIMATE FACTORS CONTINUED Ocean Currents: Currents tend to warm temperatures of eastern coastal areas and cool temps. of western coastal locations. Most northern currents flow clockwise while southern currents move counterclockwise.
Primary source of energy for earth is the SUN!!!!
Insolation: stands for Incoming Solar Radiation The intensity of sunlight that we get depends on the angle the sun strikes the earth. The angle of insolation depends on your latitude and the season
NYS never receives the 90 degree sunrays because we are too far north.
Reason for the Seasons = TILT YouTube - geography seasons YouTube - geography seasons YouTube - geography seasons
Summer Solstice : June 21 Northern hemisphere leaning toward sun Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees North latitude)gets direct sunrays longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere
Winter Solstice: December 21 southern hemisphere leaning toward the sun Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degree South Latitude) gets direct sunrays longest day of the year in the southern hemisphere
Spring (March 21) and Fall (Sept 21) Equinox neither hemisphere leaning toward the sun equator (O latitude) gets direct sunrays equal hours of day and night from north pole to south pole
Insolation and Terrestrial Radiation
Insolation: causes a gain in heat on the surface of the earth with short wave radiation Terrestrial radiation causes a loss of heat back to space with long wave radiation insolation
Greenhouse effect: terrestrial radiation trapped by greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and warming overall surface temperatures Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor are main Greenhouse gasses
Energy Absorption Solar energy is absorbed by the ground quickly and by the water slowly. When energy tries to strike the earth’s surface it can be: –Absorbed (best by dark and rough materials) –Reflected (best by light colored and smooth materials) –Scattered (by dust particles and water droplets in atmosphere)
Anytime large amounts of dust or smoke ejected into atmosphere it decreases atmospheric transparency and allows for a lot of insolation scattering. This will then decrease overall surface temperatures and perhaps be followed by cooler, rainy season.
Ozone: found in upper layers of atmosphere filters dangerous UV radiation Ozone is depleting