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Insolation. Objective TSWBAT:  Explain the factors affecting insolation  Explain the relationship between temperature and insolation  Describe evidence.

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Presentation on theme: "Insolation. Objective TSWBAT:  Explain the factors affecting insolation  Explain the relationship between temperature and insolation  Describe evidence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Insolation

2 Objective TSWBAT:  Explain the factors affecting insolation  Explain the relationship between temperature and insolation  Describe evidence for Earth’s radiative balance  Define insolation, radiative balance  Describe the four ways the atmosphere is heated.

3 What could cause us to have different amounts of sunlight/insolation?

4 1. Angle  90 o (direct rays) most intense insolation  < 90 o (less direct rays) least intense insolation

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6 Angle and Temperature  90 o = higher temperature  low angles = lower temperatures

7 2. Earth’s Shape  If the Earth was flat, the angles would all be 90 o (high temperatures)  The Earth is curved, so we get angles from 0 o to 90 o (range of temperatures)

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10 3. Latitude Fall/Spring – Equinox (March 21 st and Sept 23 rd )  Perpendicular (90°) at the Equator (0°)  Angle of incidence decreases as latitude increases (lowest at the North Pole (90°N) and South Pole (90°S))  12 hours of daylight everywhere  Altitude of noon sun: 47°  Not tilted toward/away from sun  Sunrise/set - E W

11 Fall/spring

12 Summer Solstice (June 21 st ) Perpendicular (90°) at the tropic of cancer (23 ½ °N)  12 hours of daylight at equator (0°)  15 hours of daylight 43°N (Cambridge)  24 hours of daylight 90°N  9 hours of daylight at 40°S  0 hours of daylight at 90°S  Altitude of noon sun: 70.5°  Tilted toward the sun  Sunrise/set - NE NW

13 Summer Solstice

14 Winter Solstice Dec 21 st  Perpendicular (90°) at the tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ °S)  12 hours of daylight at equator (0°)  9 hours of daylight 43°N (Cambridge)  0hours of daylight 90°N  15 hours of daylight at 40°S  24 hours of daylight at 90°S  Altitude of noon sun: 23 ½ °  Tilted away from the sun  Sunrise/set - SE SW

15 Winter Solstice

16 4. Seasons  Changes angles for latitudes  NY: Summer 70 o, Fall/Spring 47 o, Winter 23 ½ o

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18 5. Time of Day  Sunrise and sunset have low angles (lower temperatures)  Noon has the highest angle  We (NY) never get a 90 o angle at noon

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21 So, if you have a greater angle of insolation, what happens to intensity and temperature?  Intensity will increase and temperature will increase

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23 6. Tilt of Axis  If there was no tilt, there would be no change in the seasons.  The angles would stay the same, similar to Fall/Spring.

24 7. Parallelism of Axis  Helps to change the angles for the latitudes  It makes the axis tilt toward the sun or away from the sun as it revolves around the sun

25 8. Revolution  Same as Parallelism of Axis and Seasons  Changes the angles for the latitudes

26 9. Rotation  Causes the angles to change during the day  Refer to Time of Day

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28 Duration of Insolation  Means number of daylight hours  If the angle of insolation is low, there is a small duration of insolation (low temperatures)  Creates unequal distribution of heat Why does this happen? Tilted axis of rotation – greater amounts of insolation in the summer (northern hemisphere), less during the winter

29 Duration of insolation  NY: Winter: 23 ½ o, 8 hours of daylight, low temperatures, Dec 21 st  Summer: 70 o, 15 hours of daylight, high temperatures, high angle, high intensity  Fall/Spring - 47 o 12 hours of daylight.

30 Radiative balance  A condition in which a body gives off as much heat as it receives.  Insolation from Sun = infrared energy from Earth

31 Evidence for radiative balance: daily aphics/t_diurnal3.free.gif

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34 Evidence of Radiative balance  1. Hottest and coolest times of day (4pm (maximum radiative energy) and 6am(minimum radiative energy))  2. Hottest and coolest times of year (July/Aug (maximum radiative energy) and Jan/Feb (minimum radiative energy))

35 Is Earth really in radiative balance?  Radiative balance means insolation = re- radiation.  Over long periods of time, Earth is in radiative balance.  Temperatures taken year to year vary though (short periods).

36 Heating the atmosphere 1. Direct absorption of radiation from the sun 2. Re-radiation of long-wave radiation from earth’s surface 3. Conduction 4. Latent heat of condensation

37 1. Direct absorption of radiation from the sun  Gases absorb long-wave and short-wave radiation  Transferred into heat energy

38 2. Re-radiation of long-wave radiation from earth’s surface  Short wave radiation is absorbed by earth  Reradiates long wave infrared radiation also called terrestrial radiation  Gases in the atmosphere absorb this infrared reradiation and are heated

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40 3. Conduction  Transfer of heat by direct molecular contact  Not all heat energy in rocks reradiate back  Some is through direct contact of the hot rocks with the atmosphere

41 4. Latent heat of condensation  Water vapor condenses to liquid water - Release (condensation) of latent heat  gain (evaporation) of latent heat – cooling effect

42  Ex) body sweat evaporates and draws heat away from your body. The heat is stored in water vapor and rises in the atmosphere.  When it condenses, heat is releases as latent heat.  Clouds form and massive storm systems  Body sweat may help form a cloud!!


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