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Hinduism A PowerPoint Presentation by Naaz, Lovepreet, and Stuey
The word Hinduism was coined by the British administration in India during colonial times. It is suspected that the word is derived from the Persian word hindu, meaning “ river,” or a Persian corruption of the word Sindhu, which means “ the river Indus.” Hindus call their religion Sanatama Dharma, which means " eternal religion " or " eternal truth,“ or Vaidika Dharma, meaning " religion of the Vedas.” Translated, Hinduism roughly means " of the Indus Valley " or simply " Indian “ in modern times. Hinduis m
Hinduism is a mixture of religious, philosophical, and cultural ideas and practices that originated in India. It is based heavily upon the caste system which governs India ’ s people. It is characterized by the common belief in reincarnation, one absolute being capable of multiple manifestations, the law of “ cause and effect ”, following a path of righteousness, and the desire for liberation from the cycle of births and deaths. What is Hinduism??
What is Hinduism?? Although Hinduism is considered polytheistic, all Hindus believe that there is a single Ultimate Reality, known as Brahman. Also known as “ the One,” Brahman is credited towards the creation of everything. Hinduism, unlike other religions, is open to a variety of beliefs, including those involving God and the universe. Regardless of beliefs, all Hindus wish to obtain moksha, or release, from samsara, the cycle of rebirth. By breaking from this cycle, the individual becomes one with God. Furthermore, the system of karma is universal. Actions during a person ’ s lifetime result in karma status, which will affect that individual ’ s reincarnation and journey towards moksha. Hindus believe that there are four purposes of life : Dharma, or fulfilling one ’ s caste duty Artha, or prosperity Kama, or desire, sexuality, and enjoyment Moksha, or the ultimate enlightenment
Hindus believe that the creation of the universe was started by Brahman. The universe itself is viewed as a sphere, with India at its center. The world is believed to be cyclic, and goes through periods of destruction, afterwards resulting in a golden age. This ties in with the rebirth system, as well as the karma of the universe. As a result, Hinduism comes to the conclusion that the universe is never - ending, and continues this cycle of rebirth. What is Hinduism??
Referred to as “ the world ’ s oldest religion,” Hinduism is the third largest religion on the planet, with around one billion followers. Today, it is practiced across the globe ; most of the population can be found in India, Nepal, parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Trinidad, Mauritius, Surinam, South Africa, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. What is Hinduism??
Origin s Hinduism ’ s origins date so far back, that it cannot be traced to any one individual founder. Most ancient writings have unknown authors, and await decipherment. Scholars have relied on educated guesses based around archaeology, as well as modern texts, to trace Hinduism back to its roots. Some scholars believe that Hinduism must have existed as early as around 10,000 B. C.. The earliest of the Hindu scriptures, the Rig Veda, may have been composed years before 6500 B. C..
Symbolism Symbols in the Hindu religion encompass many different ideals, including the attributes of various deities, gods and goddesses. Often these symbols are found throughout art, sacred objects, and rituals. The Om, or Aum, is a sacred sound, represented as a symbol, in the Hindu religion. It is spoken at the beginning and end of all prayers, mantras, and meditation, therefore it is considered the greatest of all mantras. The Aum has a threefold nature, not only in its spelling. The three letters in Sanskrit combine to represent…
And the three worlds - The three major Hindu gods - The three sacred Vedic scriptures - Rg, Yajur, and Sama VishnuBrahmaShiva Earth Atmosphere Heaven Symbolism
One, if not the most iconic symbols, of the Hindu religion is the Bindi – a dot marked by vermilion traditionally worn on a married woman ’ s forehead. It is meant to represent the “ third eye ”, or the area between the eyebrows focused on during meditation. In modern times, the Bindi has become somewhat of a fashion accessory for young women. Unmarried girls and even non - Hindus adorn them. They are no longer restricted in color or shape, and come in various designs, forms, and colors. Symbolism
Other symbols include… The Lotus The PratikSwastika Trishula Yantra
Gender Roles Women are often considered inferior to men in Hindu texts. In both social and ethical standards, women are regarded as subservient to men. Certain texts regarded that women be disallowed from listening to ceremonies and performing rituals. It was even believed that women had to be reborn as men before journeying towards moksha. Some texts went as far as calling women impure, thanks to menstruation. Girls are to be closely watched by their fathers, by their husbands once married, and sons once widowed. Men are regarded as the breadwinners, and the more in control of the two in partnership. Men also have more religious freedoms. Though this is not true in all aspects, considering the varying beliefs that Hindus are capable of having.
Holy Scriptures Hindu scripture is collectively referred to as “ Shastras.” This collection was gathered by wise saints and sages during the history of the religion, and is comprised of two types of writings : “ Shruti,” or heard, and “ Smriti,” memorized. Before written in the Sanskrit language, they were transferred orally for centuries. Widely known Hindu texts include the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads, as well as the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Spread Hinduism is very versatile and encompasses thousands of different personal gods and goddesses. The main three that are recognized are Brahman, Shiva, and Vishnu, though Brahman is recognized as the Absolute. Many, but not all, Hindus believe in numerous deities, also known as devas. The worship of animals, planets, and nature is also advocated. Though often labeled as a polytheistic religion, some Hindus devote their lives to worshipping a specific god, instead believing that all recognized gods are manifestations of a single being.
Because Hinduism was so adaptable to outside gods, even those involved in other religions, people found it easy to revert to the religion. Hinduism ’ s spread can also be accredited to immigration, as well as trade routes that traversed overseas. The accessibility that Hinduism provided thanks to this made it easy to overshadow other religions, such as Buddhism, and create a powerful force that could spread rapidly. Spread
Places of Worship At home is the most common place of worship, since temple worship is not required. Often, temples are only used for festivals and special occasions, or as means to teach children about the Hindu religion. Worship at home takes place at an altar, in a room decorated with depictions of dieties as framed portraits, or copper and marble statues. Such depictions help focus meditation techniques.
Holy Sites There are hundreds of holy temples scattered across India. Many Hindus take a religious pilgrimage and visit these various centers. The most important of them are the four corners of India, which when visited are meant to symbolize national integration, as it requires criss - crossing the nation to visit them. Benares is the most important temple site, as it is the city of Shiva. There are over two thousand temples here. The Ganges River is considered the heart of India, as it flows through the nation and provides hundreds of thousands of people with a source of life. The river itself is tied to the personification of a goddess.
Art Influences Symbolism attributed itself to much of the revolutionary artwork created by Hinduism. Even ancient structures are recognized by the iconography Hindu symbolism has left over the ages. Much of modern - day architecture is still influenced by these primitive styles. Much Hindu art is based around abstract pieces and geometrical shapes, in an attempt to represent the immaterial world that their religion finds so fascinating. Aside from these paintings, sculptures were casted and chiseled to mirror the many deities worshipped. Forms of Classical Hindu art and architecture include Rajasthani, Moghul, Kangra, Pahari and Kalighat.
Hinduism is a very celebratory religion. It has been estimated that there is a festival for every day of the year, possibly more ! Some scholars believe there are thousands recognized throughout the world. Holidays are celebrated for various purposes ; some revolving around nature, others in honor of deities, and some to commemorate events such as marriage. Festivals involve many different activities, including worship, prayer, processions, music, dancing,, eating, drinking, and feeding the poor. Holidays Major Holidays often observed include : Holi - festival of colors and Spring Mahashivaratri ( Shiva Ratri ) - night sacred to Shiva Rama Navami - birthday of Lord Rama Krishna Jayanti - birthday of Lord Krishna Raksābandhana - renewing bonds between brothers and sisters Kumbh Mela - pilgrimage every 12 years to four cities in India Ganesha - Chaturthi ( Ganesha Utsava ) - festival of Ganesh Dassera - victory of Rama over demon king Ravana Navaratri - festival of Shakti ( in Bengal ) or Rama ' s victory over Ravana ( South India ) Diwali - festival of lights and Laksmi