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British soldier eating his dinner in the trenches during World War I. NEXT World War I, 1914–1920 World War I breaks out in Europe, the United States gets.

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Presentation on theme: "British soldier eating his dinner in the trenches during World War I. NEXT World War I, 1914–1920 World War I breaks out in Europe, the United States gets."— Presentation transcript:

1 British soldier eating his dinner in the trenches during World War I. NEXT World War I, 1914–1920 World War I breaks out in Europe, the United States gets involved in the war, and President Wilson attempts to shape the peace.

2 NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 War Breaks Out in Europe America Joins the Fight Life on the Home Front SECTION 4 The Legacy of World War I World War I, 1914–1920

3 NEXT After World War I breaks out, the United States eventually joins the Allied side. Section 1 War Breaks Out in Europe

4 Causes of World War I War Breaks Out in Europe Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand starts World War I 1 SECTION War has many underlying causes: -imperialism -nationalism -militarism—belief that nations need a large military force -alliances NEXT Image

5 1 SECTION continued Causes of World War I European nations are divided into two opposing alliances: -Central Powers—Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria -Allies—Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, 7 other countries NEXT Interactive

6 1 SECTION Stalemate in the Trenches German army invades Belgium, advances into France (1914) French, British troops stop German advance, 1st Battle of the Marne NEXT Fight for 3 years in trenches stretches across France, neither side wins Trench warfare—troops fight in trenches, use artillery, machine guns Area between opposing trenches called “no man’s land” Battle of Somme, 1.2 million casualties, Allies gain about 7 miles Image

7 1 SECTION A War of New Technology New technology raises death toll Tanks, British invention, smashes barbed wire, crosses trenches NEXT Machine guns fire 600 bullets a minute, poison gas burns, blinds WWI 1st major conflict that uses fighter airplanes U-boats—submarines used by Germans to block trade Image

8 1 SECTION America’s Path to War U.S. President Woodrow Wilson announces policy of neutrality NEXT neutrality—refusing to take sides in a war Britain sets up naval blockade of German ports U-boat sinks British passenger ship Lusitania, kills 1,198 total, 128 Americans Wilson demands that Germany stop unrestricted submarine warfare Germany at first agrees, Wilson wins reelection Germany resumes submarine warfare, January 1917 Continued... Image

9 1 SECTION British intercept Zimmermann telegram: -sent by German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann -proposes that Mexico join the Germans -Germany will help Mexico get back “lost” territories in U.S. NEXT U.S. furious about telegram, U-boats sink 3 U.S. ships President Wilson asks for declaration of war, Congress votes for war continued America’s Path to War

10 1 SECTION Revolution in Russia Russian army is outfought by smaller German army (1915) NEXT Food shortages, inflation lead to strikes by angry Russian workers Czar Nicholas II of Russia steps down (1917) Communists led by Vladimir Lenin overthrow temporary government Lenin makes peace with Germany (1918) German troops turn from Russia to the Western front Image

11 NEXT U.S. forces help the Allies win World War I. Section 2 America Joins the Fight

12 Raising an Army and a Navy America Joins the Fight Congress passes Selective Service Act May 1917: -males, ages 21 to 30, sign up for military service -by 1918, 3 million men are drafted 2 SECTION Serve under General John J. Pershing as American Expeditionary Force NEXT 50,000 U.S. women serve, mostly nurses, some do other work 400,000 African Americans serve, face discrimination Image

13 2 SECTION American Ships Make a Difference Convoy system—heavy guard of destroyers escort merchant ships NEXT Reduces loss rate of U.S. supply ships from German U-boat attacks North Sea minefield prevents U-boat access to North Atlantic

14 2 SECTION American Troops Enter the War About 14,000 U.S. troops arrive in France (June 1917) NEXT Germans launch offensive, smash through French lines (March 1918) One million U.S. troops arrive ready for combat Take Cantigny from Germans, help French troops stop German advance Defeat Germans at Belleau Wood

15 2 SECTION Pushing the Germans Back Second Battle of the Marne, turning point, Allies force Germans back NEXT Meuse-Argonne offensive, final battle of war: -leaves 26,000 Americans dead -Germans retreat U.S. soldier Alvin York kills 25, captures 132 German soldiers U.S. pilot Eddie Rickenbacker shoots down 26 enemy planes 4 African-American combat units receive recognition for battle valor Interactive

16 2 SECTION Germany Stops Fighting Germany’s navy mutinies, its allies drop out, the Kaiser steps down NEXT Germany agrees to armistice—an end to fighting (November 11, 1918) 8.5 million soldiers die in war, 21 million are wounded Millions of civilians die from starvation and disease during the war Chart

17 NEXT The war requires sacrifice for Americans at home and changes life in other ways. Section 3 Life on the Home Front

18 Mobilizing for War Life on the Home Front Americans buy war bonds, pay for two-thirds of war costs 3 SECTION War bonds—low interest loans by civilians to government NEXT Patriotic citizens limit food intake, save gas, have scrap drives Government limits civilian use of steel, other metals Continued... Image

19 President Wilson sets up War Industries Board: -buys, distributes war materials, sets production goals, sets prices 3 SECTION NEXT Committee on Public Information produces war propaganda Propaganda—opinions that influence the actions of others continued Mobilizing for War

20 Intolerance and Suspicion Patriotic propaganda wins war support, fuels prejudice 3 SECTION Espionage Act (1917), Sedition Act (1918), laws that: -set heavy fines, prison terms for doing antiwar activities -make it illegal to criticize war NEXT Continued... Image

21 Schenk v. United States—upholds Espionage Act (1919) 3 SECTION NEXT Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. argues that: -free speech can be limited especially during wartime continued Intolerance and Suspicion Image

22 New Jobs and the Great Migration Northern factories hire workers they had once rejected 3 SECTION Many African Americans move North, jobs, better life—Great Migration NEXT Mexican revolution causes many Mexicans to flee to American Southwest Wartime labor shortage makes new jobs available for women Women’s contributions during war help them win the vote Map

23 The Flu Epidemic of 1918 Flu epidemic is spread by soldiers around the world (1918) 3 SECTION Kills more than 20 million people worldwide, takes 500,000 U.S. lives NEXT In the army, more than one-quarter of soldiers catch the disease Image

24 NEXT After the war, Americans are divided over foreign policy and domestic issues. Section 4 The Legacy of World War I

25 Wilson’s Fourteen Points The Legacy of World War I President Wilson’s Fourteen Points, goals for peace: -smaller military forces -end to secret treaties -freedom of the seas -free trade -change in national boundaries -organization of a League of Nations 4 SECTION NEXT League of Nations—international group, settle conflicts by negotiation

26 Treaty of Versailles Peace treaty ending World War I—Treaty of Versailles: -forces Germany to accept full blame for war -strips Germany of its colonies, most of its armed forces -burdens Germany with $33 billion in reparations 4 SECTION NEXT Reparations—money defeated nation pays for war destruction Continued... Chart

27 Treaty of Versailles: -divides up Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire -creates Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, recognizes Poland’s independence -creates a League of Nations 4 SECTION NEXT continued Treaty of Versailles Republican-run U.S. Senate against treaty, League Wilson campaigns for treaty, U.S. does not ratify treaty, joins League Map

28 Strikes and the Red Scare Shortly after war, U.S. has several labor strikes 4 SECTION NEXT Strikes spark fear of Communist revolution in the U.S.—Red Scare Palmer raids—U.S. agents arrest at least 6,000 suspected radicals Anarchists Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti arrested for killing 2 men Sacco, Vanzetti claim innocence, found guilty, executed Image

29 Racial Tensions Increase Great Migration brings half million African Americans, Northern cities 4 SECTION NEXT Whites, blacks compete for jobs, cause race riot in East St. Louis African-American soldiers returning from war face discrimination Black resentment about unfair conditions, race riots in 25 cities (1919)

30 Longing for “Normalcy” Americans worn out by strikes, riots, Red Scare, World War I 4 SECTION NEXT Republican presidential candidate is Warren G. Harding Promises a return to normalcy, wins a landslide victory

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