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Focus on Safety: Preventing The Top Four Construction Fatalities State Building and Construction Trades Council Funded by Federal OSHA (2012)

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Presentation on theme: "Focus on Safety: Preventing The Top Four Construction Fatalities State Building and Construction Trades Council Funded by Federal OSHA (2012)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus on Safety: Preventing The Top Four Construction Fatalities State Building and Construction Trades Council Funded by Federal OSHA (2012)

2 OSHA Grant Number This material was produced under grant number SH F-6 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 Credits ─ Sources of Information Center for Construction Research & Training (CPWR) Laborers International Union of North America U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Cal/OSHA Federal OSHA Occupational Health Branch, California Dept. of Public Health The Construction Institute Associated General Contractors

4 Topics The Construction Workforce Nationwide Fall Hazards Electrical Hazards Struck-by Hazards Caught-in/between Hazards

5 The Construction Workforce Nationwide

6 Construction In 2010, construction workers were 6% of the workforce and 18.5% of the workplace deaths.

7 Non-English Speaking Workers An estimated 4.5 million of California’s 17 million workers do not speak English. Cal/OSHA states that employers must have a system to communicate with employees in a form readily understandable to them.

8 Nationwide Construction Fatalities by Hazard (2010) Other 43% Struck-by 8% Caught-in/between 4% Falls 35% Electrocutions 10% United States Total Fatalities

9 What Are the 4 Leading Causes of Death in Construction? Falls Electrical hazards Struck-by hazards Caught-in/between hazards

10 Focus Four OSHA Citations 85% of all citations and 90% of dollars in OSHA construction fines are related to the Focus Four hazards. 57% of all construction fatalities are related to the Focus Four hazards.

11 Cal/OSHA’s High Hazard Industry List ( ) - Construction Roofing Contractors

12 Fall Hazards

13 Session Objectives By the end of the session students will learn: 1) The five main causes of fall fatalities. 2) How to prevent falls. 3) How to use a personal fall protection system. 4) How to use ladders safely.

14 What Occupations Have the Highest Number of Deaths From Falls? 1. Construction Laborers 2. Roofers 3. Carpenters 4. Painters 5. Ironworkers

15 Falls Are Number One Falls are the leading cause of construction fatalities. Falls accounted for 35% of construction deaths nationwide in Have you, or anyone you know, had a fall on the job? What happened?

16 Ironworker Dies After Falling Off Beam (California Case Study) Break into small groups. Take 5-10 minutes to read the case study and discuss the question. Report your answer back to the class.

17 What Should Have Been Done to Prevent This Accident? Investigators said employers should: Require everyone working at heights to wear fall protection equipment. Make sure openings are properly covered or otherwise protected. If possible, provide alternate means of access to the work, such as an aerial lift (zoom boom).

18 What Are The Main Causes of Fall Fatalities? Unprotected sides and edges, roof and wall openings, and floor holes Improper scaffold construction Improper use of portable ladders Falls from girders and structural steel Unguarded protruding steel rebars

19 Fatal Falls in Construction by Type Causes of death from falls in construction, Other (26%) From roof (32%) From girder, structural steel (7%) From ladder (17%) From scaffold, staging (18%)

20 How Can Workers Be Protected From Falling Off an Edge?

21 Protecting Workers From Falling Off an Edge When workers are on a surface with an unprotected side or edge greater than 7.5 feet above the lower level, Cal/OSHA says employers must provide: A guardrail system, A safety net, A fall arrest system such as a lifeline and harness, or A fall restraint system

22 Can You Catch Yourself If You Fall? No! The average person’s reaction time is half a second. In that time you fall 4 feet. Gravity pulls you down and your speed quickly increases. A person who weighs 200 pounds and falls 6 feet will hit the ground with almost 10,000 pounds of force. Catching yourself during a fall only happens in the movies.

23 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

24 Unsafe Covers Covers over openings must be properly marked, positively affixed, and capable of supporting twice the intended load or 400 lbs., whichever is greater. Covers must be secured in place to prevent accidental removal or displacement. Marking should read: “Opening-Do Not Remove.”

25 Working on Scaffolds Scaffold deaths accounted for 5% of construction deaths in About 1 in 5 of the fatal falls in construction are from scaffolds.

26 Cal/OSHA Scaffold Requirements Scaffolds must be erected and dismantled under the supervision of a “qualified” person.

27 More Scaffold Safety Requirements Scaffolds (and all people working on them) must be at least 10 feet from energized power lines. Must be able to support their own weight and at least 4 times the intended load. Must have toeboards and guardrails.

28 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

29 Improper Scaffold Construction No guardrails on sides or ends of scaffold. No safe access to scaffold platforms. Platforms are not fully planked from side to side. Missing toeboards.

30 Steel Erectors An average of 35 Ironworkers die each year during steel erection. Fall arrest systems for steel erectors are difficult to set up.

31 Cal/OSHA’s Steel Erection Standard All steel erection employees (except connectors) working on an unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet high must use fall protection. Connectors must use fall protection when working two stories or 30 feet above a lower level.

32 Then …and Now

33 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

34 Not Wearing Fall Protection on Roof Truss Man on truss is not using fall protection. Cal/OSHA requires fall protection when employees are walking or working on top plates, joists, rafters, trusses, beams, or similar structural members over 15 feet above the grade or floor level below.

35 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

36 Protruding Rebar Hazards Guard all protruding ends of steel rebar with rebar covers or wooden troughs, or Bend rebar so exposed ends are no longer upright. When working above exposed rebar, fall protection/ prevention is your best defense against impalement.

37 What’s the Best Way to Prevent Falls?

38 Methods of Fall Protection What is the difference between fall prevention and fall arrest?

39 Fall Prevention Fall prevention systems use equipment to prevent workers from falling. What are some ways you can prevent falls? Use guard rails, covers, and fall restraint devices.

40 Fall Arrest Fall arrest systems are designed to catch workers after they have fallen. What are some examples of fall arrest systems? Fall arrest includes personal fall arrest systems and safety nets.

41 Guardrail Systems

42 Safety Nets

43 Personal Fall Protection Systems (PFP) Employer must fit and train each worker about PFPs. Employer must train workers about types of fall hazards, how to protect yourself, and limitations of PFPs.

44 Inspect Fall Protection Equipment User must inspect fall protection equipment before each use. Competent person must inspect fall protection equipment twice a year.

45 What Are The Components of a Personal Fall Protection System? Body harness Lanyard and connectors D-ring Anchorage point

46 Training for Fall Arrest Systems Required training should include: Explanation of the company’s fall protection policies and systems. Selection and proper use of Fall Arrest Systems and related equipment. Selection of adequate tie off point.

47 Why Don’t Workers Like To Wear Personal Fall Protection Equipment?

48 Ladder Accidents Each year, about 65 construction workers are killed by falls from ladders. Most deaths happen from 10 feet or lower. Twice as many falls occur when stepping down ladders than when going up ladders. The main cause of falls from straight and extension ladders is the ladder sliding off its base. Tie off extension ladders if they are being left in place for access.

49 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

50 Unsafe Ladder Use It’s the wrong ladder to use in this situation. You should never work on the top step or cap of a ladder. Make sure that the weight on the ladder will not cause it to slip off its support.

51 How Do You Use a Ladder Safely? Make sure the ladder is on a firm level surface. Always face the ladder when going up or down. Maintain three-point contact at all times Don’t carry anything in your hands. Secure the ladder to prevent slipping. Never over-reach to get at something off to one side.

52 View DVD: Don’t Fall for It

53 Fall Prevention Summary Cal/OSHA requires fall protection on a surface with an unprotected side or edge greater than 7.5 feet above a lower level. Fall prevention: keeps workers from falling (guardrails and hole covers). Fall arrest: catches workers after they have fallen (personal fall arrest systems and safety nets).

54 Fall Prevention Summary (cont’d) Floor openings must be secured, covered, labeled, and covers should support twice the load. Scaffolds must be erected and dismantled under the supervision of a “qualified” person. Set ladders at 4:1 height-to-base ratio, and climb using 3-point contact.

55 Fall Prevention: Tips and Feedback Class Brainstorm What tips do you have to help prevent falls on the job? What is your employer already doing to help prevent falls? What else do you think should be done?

56 Electrical Hazards

57 Session Objectives By the end of the session students will learn: 1) The four main causes of electrical injuries. 2) How to prevent injury and death from electrical hazards. 3) What to do if a co-worker gets shocked.

58 What Are The Main Causes of Electrical Injuries? Contact with Overhead Power Lines Contact with Live Circuits Poorly Maintained Power Cords Improper Use of Power Tools Have you, or anyone you know, been injured by an electrical hazard on a construction site? What happened?

59 Electrocutions Are Number 2 Electrocutions are the second leading cause of construction fatalities. Electrocutions accounted for 10% of construction deaths nationwide in Workers can even be killed by ordinary household current.

60 Laborer Electrocuted By Energized Crane (California Case Study) Break into small groups. Take 5-10 minutes to read the case study and discuss the question. Report your answer back to the class.

61 What Should Have Been Done to Prevent This Accident? Investigators said employers should: Give workers information on what hazards to look for and how to avoid them. Have strict safety procedures when working with a crane near high voltage power lines. Contact the local electric power company and have the power turned off when working within a certain distance of high voltage power lines. Never operate a crane within 10 feet of a power line.

62 Death from Electrical Hazards Causes of electrocution deaths among non-electrical construction workers,

63 Effects of Electricity PATH: Harm is related to the path by which current passes through the body.

64 Working Around Power Lines Overhead power lines carry extremely high voltage. Electrocution, burns, and falls from elevations are concerns for workers. Contact with power lines can also cause explosions and fire.

65 What Equipment Might Contact Power Lines? Crane Ladder Scaffold Backhoe Scissors lift Raised dump truck bed Bullfloat handle

66 Power Line Facts Overhead lines are typically not insulated. Equipment operators are normally safe when equipment accidentally touches a power line if they stay inside their equipment. Workers on the ground who come in contact with power lines are 8 times more likely to be killed than workers inside equipment or vehicles.

67 How Can You Work Around Overhead Power Lines Safely? Locate overhead lines before starting the job. Keep equipment at least 10 feet away. Assume that lines are energized. De-energize and ground lines when working nearby. Use wood or fiberglass ladders near power lines―still keeping at least 10 feet away.

68 Contact with Live Circuits

69 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

70 Missing Ground Prong Extension cord has a missing grounding prong. If the power supply is not grounded or the path to ground has been broken, live current may travel through a worker's body causing electrical burns or death.

71 What Is This? What Does This Do?

72 Ground-fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) Protects you from shock. Detects difference in current between the hot and neutral wires (including a ground fault). If a ground fault is detected, the GFCI shuts off electricity in 1/40th of a second. Use GFCIs on all 120-volt, single- phase, 15-and 20-ampere receptacles.

73 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

74 Improper Cord Use These cords are improperly wired directly to the electrical circuit. Not protected by a GFCI. Two-wire cords are not grounded and not rated for hard or extra-hard service.

75 What’s Does This Tell Us?

76 How Can You Use Power Tools Safely?

77 Power Tool Safety Tips Keep cords away from water, heat, oil, and sharp edges. Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories such as blades, etc. Use double-insulated tools. Stop using any power tool that is wet, overheating, smoking, starting to smell, or if you feel a tingle or shock.

78 What Should You Do If Someone Gets Shocked? Call 911. Do not touch the worker in contact with electric current. You could get shocked too. Turn off the power. Use nonconductive material (like a wooden stick) to remove him/her from the power source. This does not apply to high voltage lines. Start CPR or other first aid.

79 Electrical Hazards Summary Contact with power lines causes the most electrocutions. Stay at least 10 feet away. Use GFCIs for protection. Make sure power is off when servicing or repairing tools and equipment. Inspect all electrical tools before use. Do not touch a worker in contact with electric current. Use nonconductive material like a wooden stick to move him/her.

80 Electrical Hazards: Tips and Feedback Class Brainstorm What tips do you have to help prevent electrical accidents on the job? What is your employer doing to help prevent electrical accidents? What else do you think should be done?

81 Struck-by Hazards

82 Session Objectives By the end of the session students will learn: 1) The three main causes of struck-by fatalities. 2) How to prevent struck-by fatalities. 3) The safety requirements for nail guns and powder-actuated tools.

83 Struck-by Hazards Are Number Three Struck-by hazards are the third leading cause of construction fatalities. Struck-by fatalities accounted for 8% of construction deaths nationwide in Approximately 75% of struck-by fatalities involve heavy equipment. One in four “struck-by-vehicle” deaths involve construction workers, more than any other occupation.

84 What Are The Main Causes of Struck- by Deaths? Vehicle and Roadway Hazards Falling Objects Flying Objects Have you, or anyone you know, had an accident from a struck- by hazard on the job? What happened?

85 Construction Laborer Run Over by Front- End Loader (California Case Study) Break into small groups. Take 5-10 minutes to read the case study and discuss the question. Report your answer back to the class.

86 What Should Have Been Done to Prevent This Accident? I nvestigators said employers should make sure: Workers keep out of the immediate area where heavy equipment is operating. When visual contact is lost with workers on foot, the equipment operator stops the equipment until contact is re-established. Equipment has a working back-up alarm. There is a written code of safe practices for all hazards. Workers are adequately trained.

87 What Are the Leading Causes of Highway Worker Fatalities? For highway workers on foot, the leading cause of fatalities is being struck by construction equipment. For highway equipment operators, the most common cause of fatalities is equipment rollover.

88 What Precautions Should You Take Around Moving Vehicles or Equipment? Stay clear of vehicles. Know traffic control plan. Communicate with operators by radio and/or eye contact. Stay out of "blind spots." Wear an ANSI approved high-visibility vest. Don’t stand under loads.

89 What Should the Employer Do? Have a traffic control plan. Set up barricades and warning signs. Assign spotters and/or flaggers. Equip vehicles with rear vision cameras and radar systems to detect workers.

90 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

91 Out of Driver’s Line of Sight This worker is in the driver’s blind spot. There is no spotter. Worker is not wearing an ANSI approved vest. One in four "struck by vehicle" deaths involve construction workers, more than any other occupation.

92 How Can You Be Struck by Falling Objects? Working under cranes or scaffolds. Rigging failure. Loose or shifting materials. Lack of overhead protection. How can you be protected from falling objects?

93 Protection Against Falling Objects Wear a hard hat. Secure all loads, tools, and materials. Use toeboards. Use debris nets, catch platforms, or canopies. Never walk or work below moving objects overhead, like concrete buckets.

94 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

95 Falling Object Hazards in the Picture Scaffold is constructed improperly. Workers could get struck by objects falling off the scaffolding because there is no toeboard. No hardhats or safety glasses.

96 What Are “Flying Object” Hazards? Tools can create particles when chipping, grinding, sawing, brushing, or hammering. Particles from some tools move at amazing speed and can hit with the force of a bullet, like those from pneumatic and powder- actuated tools. How can you be protected from flying objects?

97 Protection From Flying Objects Wear eye protection. Wear hardhats. Inspect tools before use. Make sure you are properly trained before using a power tool.

98 Powder-Actuated Tools What do you think happened here?

99 How Should You Use Powder-Actuated Tools Safely? According to Cal/OSHA: Training is required to use the tool. Eye or face protection should be worn (hearing protection too). The tool should always be held perpendicular to the work surface when fastening into any material, except for applications recommended by the manufacturer. A sign must be posted within 50 feet of the area where the tools are being used.

100 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

101 Improper Use of Nail Gun The carpenter is firing a nail toward himself. He has no protective equipment like a hardhat and safety glasses. He doesn’t seem to be using hearing protection.

102 Struck by--Nailguns

103 Highlights of Cal/OSHA’s Nailgun Regs §1704. Pneumatically Driven Nailers and Staplers All pneumatically-driven nailers and staplers shall: Have a safety device on the muzzle. Be connected to the air supply with spring loaded shut-off valve and a positive locking mechanism to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected.

104 Highlights of Cal/OSHA’s Nailgun Regs (cont’d) Personal protective equipment shall be used. Tools shall be equipped with a fitting that will discharge all compressed air in the tool at the time the fitting or hose coupling is disconnected. Safety training shall be conducted prior to initial assignment. Training shall be conducted by a qualified person.

105 Struck-by Hazards Summary Use caution around vehicles and equipment, maintain eye contact with operators, and wear high-visibility gear. Don’t stand under loads. Wear a hard hat and safety glasses to protect yourself from flying objects. Don’t use powder-actuated tools unless you are trained and certified. Pneumatically-driven nailers and staplers must meet new Cal/OSHA safety regulations.

106 Struck-by Hazards: Tips and Feedback Class Brainstorm What tips do you have to help prevent struck- by accidents on the job? What is your employer already doing to help prevent struck-by accidents? What else do you think should be done?

107 Caught-in/between Hazards

108 Session Objectives By the end of the session students will learn: 1) The three main causes of caught- in/between fatalities. 2) How to prevent caught-in/between deaths. 3) How to prevent equipment roll-overs.

109 What Are The Main Causes of Caught- in/between Deaths? Being crushed by collapsing materials, such as in a trench or excavation. Being caught in, or between, machinery or equipment. Equipment rollover.

110 Caught-in/between Hazards Are Number 4 Caught-in/between hazards are the fourth leading cause of construction fatalities. Caught-in/between deaths accounted for 4% of construction fatalities nationwide in Have you, or anyone you know, been injured working in a trench? What happened?

111 Plumber Dies When Trench Collapses (California Case Study) Break into small groups. Take 5-10 minutes to read the case study and discuss the question. Report your answer back to the class.

112 What Should Have Been Done to Prevent This Accident? Investigators said employers should make sure: Workers don’t enter trenches deeper than 5’ without shoring, benching, or sloping. Backhoe operators place excavated soil (spoil) from trenches at least 2’ from the edge of the trench. Workers get safety training before they are assigned hazardous work.

113 Why Are Trenches Dangerous? Most deaths from cave-ins occur in trenches 5 to 15 ft. deep. Cave-ins happen suddenly with no warning. Other risks: falls, electrocution, being struck by falling objects (or equipment), and bad air. Bad air can make it hard to breathe, help cause a fire, or poison you.

114 Think You Can Run? If a trench collapses, why not just run out of the way? Soil falls too fast. Guess how fast it falls from a height of: 2 feet?2 feet? 4 feet? 6 feet?4 feet?6 feet? Click your choice.

115 From Two Feet … It takes only 0.35 seconds for soil to fall two feet. Human reaction time is about 0.50 seconds. There’s no time to escape. Go BackGo Back ContinueContinue

116 From Four Feet … It takes only 0.50 seconds for soil to fall four feet. Human reaction time is about 0.50 seconds. There’s no time to escape. Go BackGo Back ContinueContinue

117 From Six Feet … It takes only 0.61 seconds for soil to fall six feet. Human reaction time is about 0.50 seconds. In this example, it would take a worker another 0.11 seconds to reach the ladder. There’s no time to escape. Go BackGo Back ContinueContinue

118 How Much Does Soil Weigh? OK, the trench has collapsed. A little bit of soil can’t weigh that much, right? Maybe you could dig out? Wrong! Assume you’re buried three feet deep. A cubic yard of soil is pressing on you. How much do you think a cubic yard weighs?

119 Up to Two Tons! A cubic yard of wet excavated clay weighs 3078 lbs. A cubic yard of wet sand and gravel weighs 3375 lbs. A cubic yard of sandstone weighs 3915 lbs. That’s almost two tons!

120 Weight of a Truck Two tons is almost the weight of a small pickup truck. Try to breathe or move with this weight on your arms, chest, and face. You can’t!

121 What Causes Trench Deaths? No protective system (like shoring) is in place. Trenches and excavations are not properly or regularly inspected. Excessive weight, such as machinery and spoil, is close to the edge of the excavation. No safe means is available to get in and out of the trench. Water in trenches.

122 What Must an Employer Do to Make a Trench Safe? Cal/OSHA says your employer must train workers about trench hazards and how to protect themselves. Employer must name a “competent” person before a trench is dug.

123 What Should You Do Before You Work In a Trench? Notify all Regional Notification Centers and all underground utility owners. Notify two working days before starting the work. Make sure the contractor has marked all utilities before digging. Make sure the competent person say it’s OK to work in.

124 What Should You Do Before You Work In a Trench? (cont’d) Make sure equipment, like water pumps and ventilators, are in good condition. Make sure there is a ladder within 25’ so you can get in and out. If bad air is expected, make sure there is a rescue plan.

125 How Can Cave-Ins Be Prevented? Trenches 5 feet or deeper require support, unless they are in solid rock. Excavations 5 feet or deeper require a permit from Cal/OSHA if workers will be entering them. The type of trench protection depends on the type of soil, and only a competent person can classify soil.

126 What Are The Four Basic Ways To Support A Trench? Sloping Benching Shoring Shielding

127 Sloping Soil angled to increase stability

128 Benching Steps in trench wall

129 Shoring A support system made of posts, wales, struts, and sheeting. Hydraulic shoring (shown here) is very common.

130 Shielding A protective frame or box is used as a trench shield system.

131 Entering and Leaving a Trench There must be a stairway, ladder, or ramp in excavations 4’ or more deep. It must be within 25’ of the workers. Ladder should extend 3’ above the top of the trench.

132 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

133 Unsafe Trench There is no shoring. We can’t see if there is a way to safely enter or leave the trench. Backhoe should not be on top of the trench. Workers should be protected from equipment that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations.

134 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

135 Trenching Box Is Too Low The trench shield should extend to the catch point (top) of the trench. Ladders should be placed so that no worker is more than 25’ from an exit. The backhoe is too close to the edge of the trench. Its weight might cause a cave-in.

136 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

137 Unsafe Spoils Pile The spoil pile is required to be at least 2 feet from the edge of the trench and/or retained to prevent it from falling into the trench.

138 What’s Wrong With This Picture?

139 Hazardous Trench This trench has: Inadequate sloping No shoring No trench shield

140 Excavation Rescue Excavation rescue must be done carefully because rescue operations might: – cause additional cave-ins – create more soil pressure on buried victim – injure the victim more severely.

141 What Are Some Other Caught- in/between Hazards? Caught-in machinery or mechanical equipment Pinned between equipment and a solid object (wall or equipment) Equipment service and maintenance Rollovers

142 What Are Examples of Mechanical or Moving Equipment? Saws Presses Conveyors Bending, rolling, or shaping machines Powered hand tools Forklifts

143 How Can Workers Be Protected From Moving Parts or Equipment?

144 Machine Guards

145 What Other Precautions Should You Take When Servicing or Repairing Equipment?

146 Lockout/blockout Cal/OSHA says that employers should: Set up a written lockout/ blockout program to make sure equipment is disconnected and locked before it is repaired. Train you to use the program.

147 Rollovers Have you, or anyone you know, experienced a vehicle or equipment rollover? What happened?

148 What Can You Do to Prevent Rollovers? Don’t work parallel to steep grades, embankments, or unstable soil. Use equipment with a ROPS, and fasten the seatbelt. If rolling over, don’t jump out if the vehicle has a ROPS and seatbelt. You have a better chance to ride it out with a ROPS and your seat belt fastened.

149 What Happened Here?

150 Caught-in/between Hazards Summary Trench protection is required for 5 ft. deep or more. Methods of trench protection – sloping, benching, shoring, shielding. Trench inspections must be conducted by a competent person. Only those who are trained and equipped should perform trench rescues. Use lockout/blockout procedures when servicing or repairing machines. Use heavy equipment that has a ROPS and fasten the seatbelt.

151 Caught-in/between Hazards: Tips and Feedback Class Brainstorm What tips do you have to help prevent accidents from being caught-in/ between moving equipment on the job? What is your employer already doing to prevent these accidents? What else do you think should be done?

152 You’ve Come A Long Way! But We Still Have a Ways to Go…


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