Presentation on theme: "20 th Century America How World War I contributed to American thought, culture, politics, and literature Part 1 - WWI."— Presentation transcript:
20 th Century America How World War I contributed to American thought, culture, politics, and literature Part 1 - WWI
About WWI Causes of WWI, pt. 1 Treaty Alliance System: Political maneuvers sought encirclement and protection from the imperialistic aspirations of neighboring nations. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand encouraged domino-effect declarations of war by nations across first Europe and then the world. Imperialism: Many nations sought to increase their territory and national wealth. Britain and France’s colonial acquisitions prompted Germany to scramble into forging colonies in Africa.
About WWI Causes of WWI, pt. 2 Militarism: Ruling entities in Britain, France, and Germany engaged in an arms race as military exploits were seen as a central focus for each government. Invasion plans and strategies were drawn up by many governments. Nationalism: Many nations desired independence from ruling authorities, particularly Serbia and other Balkan principalities from Austria-Hungary. Others, including the Italians and Germans, desired unification after being left as separate states at the conclusion of the Congress of Vienna.
Weapons of War Bayonet - a blade that is attached to the barrel of a rifle for use in close combat The bayonet, an outdated weapon in offensive warfare, was seen as symbolic of a warrior mentality. Bayonets continued to be issued to personnel in the Second World War.
Weapons of War Flamethrower – spreads fire by launching fuel Initially used by the Germans in short range trench warfare against the British and French, flamethrowers were later adopted by both the British and French armies. Not effective at distance or in covering large areas, the flamethrower was a short-range trench-clearer.
Weapons of War Grenade – an explosive, either hand or rifle-driven with detonation triggered by either impact or a timer. Grenades were essential to trench warfare in World War I – and date back in some form to the 15 th century. Grenades are still in use today in modern combat.
Weapons of War Machine Gun – often tripod-mounted, the gun produced a rapid-fire succession of bullets (estimated between 400 rounds/min in 1914 and up to 1200 rounds/min by the end of the war) Machine guns were typically used to maintain defensive positions. In this era, the machine gun was too heavy to be portable, and thus was not often used as an offensive weapon.
Weapons of War Trench mortars – a short tube that fires a projectile (explosive) at a steep angle so that it falls directly on an enemy. Trench mortars could be fired from the relative safety of inside the trench.
Weapons of War Tank – an armored car driven on a caterpillar track, often with mounted machine guns, & later with large artillery guns Tanks didn’t figure into WWI until 1916, but by the end of the war were an important means to cross trenches and advance infantry in a more protected manner. The British and French built over 7000 tanks combined. Germany, having not foreseen the tank’s potential, only produced 20.
Weapons of War Poison Gas – a variety of airborne chemicals, sometimes released from canisters, sometimes by means of artillery shell. Poison Gas – tear gas, mustard gas, chlorine, etc. – had a variety of effects. Some effects were deadly, all were unpleasant. Poison gas attacks were used in anti- German propaganda (though the French were the first to use gas attacks in 1914). Walls of gas could be used to disable or clear trench areas.
Weapons of War Rifles, Pistols, etc. The General Change in Philosophy – Although war has always involved some amount of killing, the Great War brought about a philosophical shift. No longer would battles be carried out primarily in a man-against-man or man-against-fortress fashion. The means of bringing about an enemy’s death expeditiously was at a premium, especially when it involved a minimal human cost from one’s own ranks.