Earth Science Plate Tectonics and How Oceans/Mountains Affect Climate Review and game!
Plate Tectonics Crustal plates move causing certain geological features to form such as volcanoes, mountains, earthquakes, etc There are 4 main types of boundaries that we discussed: –Divergent- pull apart creating volcanoes, –Convergent- two crustal plates come together creating fold mountains –Transform- two plates slide past each other creating earthquakes –Subduction- two ocean plates or an ocean and crustal plate collide creating trenches and volcanoes.
Let’s quickly review how mountains and oceans can affect climate. Mountains: Can block rain and wind causing a different climate –Can cause a drier area/desert on one side of the mountain due to a rain shadow Have breezes that flow at night and day in different directions depending on where the high pressure (cool air) is.
On the windward side of a mountain range, air rises, cools, and drops its moisture. Rain Shadows What is climate? 1 1 On the leeward side of a mountain range air descends, heats up, and dries the land.
Windward Vs. Leeward Rainfall occurs on the windward side of the mountain where the air is rising. Cool & Wet It is dry on the leeward side of the mountain where the air is sinking. Warm & Dry
Rain Shadows Mountains greatly affect the climate. They act as barriers blocking rain and wind. What do you think a rain shadow is?
One side of the mountain may have a very different climate from the other side. In some cases mountains create a shadow. This is where rain does not fall. Deserts can form in the rain shadow regions.
During the day the surface of the mountain heats the air high up in the atmosphere quicker than the valley floor can. Wind moves from the valley where the air pressure is high toward the mountains creating a Valley Breeze
During the night the surface of the mountain cools the air high up in the atmosphere quicker than the valley floor can. Wind moves from the mountain where the air pressure is high & cool toward the valley creating a Mountain Breeze
Oceans Create breezes during the day and night that affect the climate of the shore Ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream can make an area much Warmer than an area not near the ocean at the same latitude. (example: part of inner Canada and England—England’s climate is warmer due to the warm Gulf Stream ocean current).
Sea Breezes The land cools and heats faster than the ocean. Water holds heat longer than land, and takes longer to heat or cool. During the day, the land gets hotter faster than the water. The heated air rises; wind from the cooler sea blows in to take the place of that warmer air. These happen during the day!
A. trench Hawaii is in the center of the “ring of fire” and is caused by ____. B. Hot spots; underwater volcanoes C. earthquake D. All of these
A. A deep area in the ocean where one plate sinks beneath another. C. Volcano D. None of these B. Subductive boundary—creating a trench Divergent Boundary- creating a volcano Transform Boundary– creating an earthquake
A. crust, magma, and core Beginning with the outer most layer, Earth’s layers are the ____. B. crust, mantle, core C. core, mantle, and crust D. core, magma, and crust C. core, mantle, and crust D. core, magma, and crust A. crust, magma, and core C. core, mantle, and crust D. core, magma, and crust C. core, mantle, and crust D. core, magma, and crust