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Unit 3: Earth Materials Lesson 4: Non-Renewable Energy Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Earth Materials Lesson 4: Non-Renewable Energy Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3: Earth Materials Lesson 4: Non-Renewable Energy Resources
(Heath Earth Science pg )

2 Today’s Objectives Assess the extraction and use of geological resources, including: Recognize ways in which the study of rocks relates to geology and industry (e.g., gravel deposits used for construction materials) Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources (e.g., wind and solar vs. fossil fuels) Identify the uses of ore minerals, rock and sediment materials, and fossil fuels (e.g., extracting metals) Describe several methods of extraction employed in the development of ore minerals, rock and sediment materials, and fossil fuels (e.g., open pit vs. underground mining) Describe methods of concentrating and refining ore minerals and fossil fuels (e.g., fractionation of fossil fuels)

3 Review Last day we learned more about the 3 different types of rocks
You should review this section by reading the summary on page 82, review the vocabulary terms on page 82, and answer the review questions on page 82-83

4 Geology and Industry The study of rocks in many ways relates to industry Understanding the physical properties of rocks, how different rocks are formed, and where they might be found is very valuable in several industries: Mining/Extraction (Fossil Fuels, Metals, Non-metals, etc.) Mineral Exploration Energy Environmental Consulting Conservation Ex.) Understanding when and how petroleum was formed can help energy companies determine where to drill for oil

5 Renewable vs. Non-renewable
Which resources are renewable? Non-renewable? What’s the difference between the two? non non non non non

6 Renewable vs. Non-Renewable
A renewable resource is one that can be replaced in nature at a rate close to its rate of use Ex.) oxygen in the air, trees in a forest, vegetables grown in the soil, solar energy from the sun, etc. A nonrenewable resource is one that exists in a fixed amount or is used up faster than it can be replaced in nature Ex.) all metals such as gold, silver, iron, copper, and aluminum; nonmetals such as sand, gravel, limestone, and sulfur; and energy resources such as coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium Some geological resources can be reused, but most of them, especially the energy resources, are destroyed by use

7 Metals and Nonmetals All metallic and many important nonmetallic elements can be obtained from minerals Some elements are attached to, but not chemically bonded to other elements and are easily separated from them (gold, silver) More commonly, the metal or nonmetal is chemically combined with another substance, and must be chemically separated to be useful In both cases, the valuable element is often only a small portion of the rock it is found in

8 Metals and Nonmetals Ore: A rock with a profitable amount of the valuable element/mineral Ore mineral: the valuable element/mineral Gangue: the rest of the rock Quartz, feldspar, calcite, and dolomite are common gangue minerals Mineral resources are nonrenewable Mineral reserves are the amount of known deposits of a mineral in ores worth mining (profitable)

9 Ore Minerals of Important Metals

10 Mineral Availability Estimating how much of a particular resource exists on Earth is a complex and controversial process Difficult to make reliable estimates because exploration is incomplete Most estimates refer to reserves Future availability of a mineral/resource depends on the amount of supply as well as how rapidly the supply is being used up The US is one of the largest producers and consumers of mineral resources

11 Methods of Extracting Ore Minerals
Open pit mining Used when materials are close to the surface

12 Methods of Extracting Ore Minerals
Underground mining Used when materials are deep beneath the surface

13 Uses of Metallic Ore Minerals
Iron – used in steel production Steel used for construction of skyscrapers, bridges, tunnels, ships, planes, trains, utensils, pins, many more Copper – used in electrical wiring, making brass Aluminum – used for cans, cookware, lightweight construction materials Zinc – combined with copper to make brass Also used to coat iron and steel, prevent rust Lead – used in storage batteries, solder, shielding around radioactive materials

14 Uses of Nonmetallic Ore Minerals

15 Practice: Topic Questions: pg. 89, #1 Pg. 92, #8-10

16 Energy Use Energy is defined as the ability to do work
Water, wind, animals, and even humans muscles can supply energy for work Energy use has increased dramatically in the last century At one time, wood, which can be burned for heat, light, and cooking, was the major source of energy in the world Today, the worlds use of energy is greater than ever, yet only 7% of that energy comes from renewable sources like water power and wind The rest comes from nonrenewable sources of energy

17 Nonrenewable Energy Resources
There are several sources of nonrenewable energy: Fossil Fuels coal petroleum (oil) natural gas Uranium

18 Nonrenewable Energy Resources
World Energy Use

19 Fossil Fuels: Coal

20 Fossil Fuels: Coal Coal is an organic sedimentary rock
Formed from slowly decayed plant materials that were buried in swamp waters All living things contain C, H, and O As time passes, the H and O is lost and only the C remains Plant material  peat  coal As the % of C increases, the amount of energy given off by burning the coal increases World reserves of coal could last hundreds of years at the present rate of use

21 Fossil Fuels: Petroleum

22 Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas

23 Fossil Fuels: Petroleum and Natural Gas
The word petroleum means “rock oil” Like coal, petroleum is a sedimentary material of organic origin It is a mixture made mainly of liquid hydrocarbons Gasoline and kerosene are two examples of hydrocarbons Petroleum may have formed by slow chemical changes in plant/animal materials buried under sand and clay in shallow coastal waters Some of the hydrocarbons formed were liquid (petroleum) and some were gas (natural gas)

24 Fossil Fuels: Petroleum and Natural Gas
As the sediments became compacted, the hydrocarbons were squeezed into pores and cracks of nearby sandstones or limestones that also contained seawater The lighter, mixed hydrocarbon liquids (petroleum) rose above the sea water, and the natural gas collected above the petroleum Wells are drilled into oil-bearing rock to release the oil The pressure of the natural gas helps to bring the oil to the surface Natural gas often occurs with petroleum, but may also exist in great deposits of gas alone

25 Uses of Fossil Fuels Coal - electricity, steel production, raw material in chemical factories, heating (China) Natural gas – fuel for heating Petroleum (petroleum, oil, kerosene, gasoline) – fuel for automobiles, heating, lubricants, raw material for plastics, fertilizers, dyes, and medicines

26 Nuclear Power: Uranium

27 Nuclear Power: Uranium
Uranium is not a fossil fuel, but it is a fuel or source of energy It is used in nuclear reactors to generate electricity Energy is obtained from certain kinds of uranium during atomic fission (see the diagram) A nuclear power plant be used can produce electricity by fissioning uranium inside a nuclear reactor Heat produced during fission is used to create steam from water, the steam then runs a turbine At present rate of use, US uranium reserves will last about years

28 Uses of Nuclear Power Fourth most important source of energy after the fossil fuels Used primarily for electricity

29 Practice: Topic Questions, pg. 97, #11-15

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