3 Rocks! Made up of a mineral or a mixture of minerals May also contain sediments and fossil remains of plants and animalsThey are the result of natural forces at work on our planetThe study of rocks is called petrology
4 Rock made up of one type of mineral Quartzite – made up of the mineral quartzThe most common mineral on earth is quartz.
5 ROCKS are the records to our planet’s past! They indicate where rivers have flowedWhere huge inland seas were locatedWhat organisms lived in those seasWhere glaciers covered land
6 All rocks fall into one of 3 basic groups: Basic Rock TypesAll rocks fall into one of 3 basic groups:1. Igneous2. Sedimentary3. Metamorphic
7 Igneous Rocks Form from the cooling of liquid rock Igneous means “fire”Form from the coolingof liquid rock(magma) that came upfrom deep within theearth. It is the meltingand solidification ofmetamorphic rocks!Igneous rock is the mostcommon material of theearth’s crust!
8 Igneous Rocks: Often hidden by sedimentary rock Can be intrusive or extrusive igneous rockIf recrystallization and solidification occurred below the earth’s surface (such as the formation of granite), than the rock is intrusiveIf the rock formed on the earth’s surface from cooling of volcanic lava (such as obsidian and basalt), than the rock is extrusive
9 Igneous Rocks:If rock formed from a slow cooling, the rock will contain coarse-textured minerals (Example = granite)If rock formed from a fast cooling, the rock will contain fine-textured minerals (Example = basalt)If rock contains a high amount of silica, it will be light in color and weight, and be known as acidicIf rock contains high amounts of iron and magnesium, it will be dark-colored and heavy, and be known as basic
10 Most common extrusive and basic igneous rock BasaltMost common extrusive and basic igneous rock
11 Most abundant of all igneous rocks GraniteMost abundant of all igneous rocks
12 Sedimentary RocksForm from the burial and cementing of layers of sediment broken off of other rock types and deposited in water. Weathering and erosion can be caused by wind, waves, gravity, or water. Rivers carry sediment for long distances.
14 Conglomerate or Breccia (depends on rounding) Cobble Name of Particle Size Range Loose Sediment Consolidated Rock Boulder >256 mm Gravel Conglomerate or Breccia (depends on rounding) Cobble 64 – 256 mm Pebble mm Sand 1/16 –2 mm Sandstone Silt 1/ /16 mm Siltstone Clay <1/256 mm Claystone, mudstone, and shale
15 Compaction from the weight of accumulating sediment results in layers that become hardened and turn to sedimentary rocks!
18 Metamorphic RocksForm from pressure and extreme temperatures changing the chemistry of igneous and sedimentary rocks that got buried into the earth over time.
19 Metamorphosis Complete change of character, appearance, or condition. Involves heat, pressure, and chemical actionProcess can occur more than onceResults in the recrystallization of original rock (sedimentary or igneous) and a different mineral composition
24 The Importance of Rocks and Minerals NameType of RockUseBasaltIgneousUsed in road building materialsCalciteMineralUsed in cements and mortars and the production of limeGraniteUsed for buildings, monuments, and tombstonesMarbleMetamorphicUsed in building, floors, tile in bathroomsObsidianUsed in making arrowheads and knivesPumiceUsed in scouring, scrubbing, and polishing materialsQuartzUsed in making glass, electrical components, and optical lensesSanstoneSedimentaryUsed in the building industry for housesSlateUsed for roofs, chalkboards, and patio walks
25 LandformsPart or area of the Earth’s surface that has a distinctive shape or topography
26 Weatheringis a series of natural processes, both physical and chemical, that act to change exposed rock into mineral and rock particles and chemical compounds in solution.