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Mr. Ramos.  Objectives: ◦ Describe the function of the skeletal system and how to care for it. ◦ Discuss the functions of the muscles and skin and how.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Ramos.  Objectives: ◦ Describe the function of the skeletal system and how to care for it. ◦ Discuss the functions of the muscles and skin and how."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Ramos

2  Objectives: ◦ Describe the function of the skeletal system and how to care for it. ◦ Discuss the functions of the muscles and skin and how to protect them. ◦ Explain the function of the nervous system and how to protect it.

3  The Skeletal System supports and protect your body.  In adults, it is made up of 206 bones.  Bones are mainly composed of calcium.

4 1. Eat healthy foods that contain calcium 2. Exercise (walking, dancing, aerobics) 3. Practice good posture 4. Wear comfortable shoes 5. Get regular check ups

5  The spine (vertebral column) supports your body and protects the spinal cord.

6  Joints are places where two bones meet.

7  Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect bones at joints.

8  Cartilage is tough but flexible.  There are three types of cartilage: 1.Elastic Cartilage 2.Fibrocartilage 3.Hyaline Cartilage

9  The integumentary system is made up of the skin, hair, nails…  The skin is the body’s largest organ. My skin is like a raincoat Functions 1.Warm 2.Cool 3.Protects Functions 1.Warm 2.Cool 3.Protects Protect your skin

10  The skin protects you from germs, UV rays, and chemicals.  Different people have different skin colors. Melanin is a substance that gives skin its color.

11 Freckles are small, flat pigment cells in the skin. They may be light brown or tan. Birthmarks are red or bluish-red marks from blood vessels. Moles are raised collections of pigment cells. They are usually brown, black, or blue.

12  How can you tell if your mole may be cancerous? 1.Asymmetrical (not the same on each side) 2.Border is irregular and not smooth 3.Color is uneven 4.Diameter is larger than a pencil eraser

13  The muscular system is made up of muscles that control your body’s movements.  Humans have about 640-850 muscles.  There are three types of muscles: 1. Skeletal Muscles – voluntary 2. Smooth Muscles - involuntary 3. Cardiac Muscles – involuntary

14  A tendon is a cord of tissue fibers that connect a muscle to a bone.

15 1. Exercise & Stretch 2. Eat foods that have protein 3. Lift heavy objects correctly

16  The nervous system processes information and controls all body activities.  The nervous system is made up of the 1. Brain – controls everything 2. Spinal cord – carries messages from the brain to the body 3. nerves – carry messages from the spinal cord to the rest of the body

17 Prevent Injuries 1. Wear a seat belt in the car 2. Wear a helmet when riding bike Avoid Harmful Substances 1. Avoid illegal drugs 2. Avoid alcohol Be a Safe Sport 1. Wear correct equipment for any sport 2. Swim and dive with care

18  Objectives ◦ Describe how your body’s transport systems function ◦ Explain the way in which your respiratory and circulatory systems work together ◦ Summarize how your digestive and urinary systems function ◦ Explain how your endocrine and immune systems work for your body’s growth and protection

19  The respiratory system brings oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body.  The cardiovascular system (circulatory system) transports the oxygen and carbon dioxide brought in by the respiratory system.  The digestive system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients.  The urinary system removes liquid waste from the body.

20  Your cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.  This system transports blood throughout the body. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood to the heart. Capillaries connect arteries & veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood to the heart. Capillaries connect arteries & veins.

21  Your respiratory system is made up of the nose, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm.  Its main job is breathing. It bring oxygen in and carbon dioxide out.

22  The diaphragm is a muscle below your lungs that helps you breath.

23  Alveoli are small air sacs in the lungs that put the oxygen in the blood and take the carbon dioxide out of the blood.

24  A Pulse measures how fast your heart is beating.  We measure pulse in beats per minute (BPM).  Your pulse is felt on arteries. You cannot feel a pulse on veins. Tachycardia is more than 100 BPM Bradycardia is less than 60 BPM Tachycardia is more than 100 BPM Bradycardia is less than 60 BPM

25 1. Do not smoke 2. Exercise regularly 3. Avoid polluted air 4. Avoid toxic fumes 5. Seek medical help if you develop a respiratory illness 6. Avoid fatty foods 7. Maintain a healthful weight 8. Follow a plan to manage stress

26  The digestive system is composed of many organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, small & large intestines, pancreas, and anus.  The digestive system breaks down food to obtain energy.

27  The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethtra.  This system removes liquid waste, called urine, from the body.  The kidneys filter the liquid and the bladder stores it.

28 1. Take small bites and chew your food thoroughly. 2. Include fiber in your diet ◦ Wheat bread, bran, brown rice, oats, and fresh fruits and vegetables. 3. Exercise regularly 4. Take in plenty of water each day

29  The endocrine system is made up of several glands that produce hormones.  Endocrine glands release hormones into the blood.

30  The immune system is made up of an army of white blood cells, lymph, and lymphoid organs.  These cells help fight invaders.  Pathogens are disease causing invaders, such as viruses & bacteria. Pathogens

31  Immune System cells are formed in the bone marrow. (e.g. B-cells, T-cells, Macrophages)  T-cells mature in the thymus gland.  The spleen is the immune system’s filter.

32  Objectives: ◦ Summarize how the body changes during puberty. ◦ Discuss how the male reproductive system works. ◦ Discuss how the female reproductive system works. ◦ Identify ways in which individuals differ in their growth and development. ◦ Describe ways in which individuals become responsible adults.

33  How does a child become an adult?  Adolescence is the period of life between childhood and adulthood, during which many physical, mental, and emotional changes occur.  The beginning of adolescence is usually associated with puberty.  Puberty is a period of growth during which males and females become physically able to reproduce.

34  Puberty typically begins at about age 12 for males and age 11 for females.  Secondary sex characteristics are characteristics of adult men and women that develop during puberty.  Secondary sex characteristics in males include deepening of the voice, growth of hair, increased bone and muscle mass, enlarged penis, and more.  Secondary sex characteristics in females include, enlarged breasts, widening of hips, menstruation, growth of hair, and more.


36  Puberty occurs because of sex hormones.  Estrogen is a hormone that affects female sexual development and the menstrual cycle.  Testosterone is a hormone that affects male sexual development.

37  The reproductive system is the group of organs and other structures that enables humans to produce offspring.  The male reproductive system produces sperm cells. This production occurs in the testes. The male reproductive system produces a milky fluid known as seminal fluid. When sperm enters the fluid, it is called semen, or male ejaculate.

38  Sperm cells are made in the testes and mature in the epididymis.  Sperm travels from the epididymis through a tube called the vas deferens.  The sperm travels through the vas deferens where it is them bathed in seminal fluid.  The vas deferens becomes the urethra and semen is ejaculated from the penis after a series of muscular contractions.


40  Bathe or shower daily to keep the reproductive system clean. Dead skin and secretions can collect under the foreskin of uncircumcised males.  Wear protective gear, such as a protective cup, while playing sports.  Perform regular testicular self-examination. Ask your doctor to show you how to perform this test.

41  Have regular medical checkups and ask your doctor any questions that you have about the reproductive system.  Seeks medical attention for any problems. Males should consult a physician if they notice any sharp pain, lumps, or sores, rashes, or a discharge from the penis.


43  The female reproductive system produces egg cells or ova.  Ovulation is the release of a mature ovum, or egg, from an ovary.  One egg is usually released each month from an ovary.  Fertilization of an egg cell and a sperm cell occurs in the fallopian tube.


45  Eggs that are not fertilized leave the body during menstruation (aka. Period).  Menstruation is a monthly process during which the built-up lining of a woman’s uterus sheds itself and leaves the body.  The average menstruation cycle is 28 days with 5 days of menstrual flow.  Some women experience longer or shorter menstrual cycles with heavy or light blood flow.

46  Females should keep track of their menstrual cycle. This may help physicians understand any problems that may occur in a woman’s body.  During menstruation, use pads or tampons to absorb the menstrual flow.  Pads are made of cotton and absorb blood.  Tampons are inserted in the vagina and collect blood before it leaves the body.

47  Take a warm bath or exercise moderately to help reduce menstrual cramps.  Females should limit their intake of caffeine and salt. Females should also ask a parent/guardian or physician about pain medication.  Make breast self-examination a monthly habit.  Females should check their breasts for lumps, skin changes, or unusual tenderness right after their menstrual cycle.  Always seek medical attention for any irregularities or problems.

48  A developmental task is a task that must be mastered as a person matures. ◦ Develop friendships with members of both sexes. ◦ Show that you respect your body. ◦ Work on skills you will need to have if you decide to marry & become a parent. ◦ Develop skills that will help you prepare for college or find a job. ◦ Know your values & make choices that are consistent with them. ◦ Cooperate with others.

49  Objectives ◦ Explain what happens during pregnancy and childbirth. ◦ Describe how people’s behaviors affect the future health of the mother and the fetus during pregnancy. ◦ Discuss the responsibilities of parenthood. ◦ Explain the risks of teen pregnancy and parenthood.

50  Fertilization, also known as conception, is when a sperm cell and egg cell unite.  Sperm cell + egg cell  zygote

51  Pregnancy is the period of time beginning with conception and ending when the female gives birth.  Pregnancy lasts 9 months. Those 9 months are divided into 3 trimesters.  1 trimester is 3 months

52  The term embryo refers to a developing baby during the first 8 weeks after conception.  Fetus is the term for a developing baby from the end of the eighth week after conception until birth.

53  The fertilized egg (zygote) moves from the fallopian tube into the uterus.  The placenta is the organ that attaches the embryo to the inner wall of the uterus.  The umbilical cord connects the developing baby to the placenta during pregnancy.  Oxygen, nutrients, and waste are carried from mother to baby and baby to mother through the placenta and umbilical cord.

54  The developing baby continues to grow within an amniotic sac.  The amniotic sac is a pouch filled with fluid that surrounds and protects the developing fetus.  The final stage of pregnancy is labor.  Labor is a series of stages that results in the birth of the baby.

55  The baby passes into the vagina after the cervix widens.  Once outside the body, the baby begins to breathe on his or her own.  The physician cuts the umbilical cord and the mother delivers the placenta.

56  Follow a balanced diet: ◦ Consult your physician to determine nutritional needs ◦ Many physicians advice adding 250 calories per day ◦ Mothers can avoid constipation by increasing fiber and drinking plenty of water.

57  Avoid smoking, which increases the health risks to an embryo or fetus ◦ Women who smoke during pregnancy are at an increased risk for having a miscarriage. ◦ A miscarriage is the accidental ending of a pregnancy before the developing baby is ready to be born. ◦ Smoking mothers put babies at increased risk for SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).

58  Do not use alcohol ◦ When a pregnant mother drinks alcohol, there is an increased risk that the fetus develops fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). ◦ FAS includes problems, such as mental retardation, heart disease, and defects in joints, arms, and legs. ◦ Alcohol can also affect the father by impairing his judgment.

59  Stay away from illegal drugs ◦ Babies can be born addicted to drugs taken by their mothers. ◦ Babies can develop brain damage and other defects when the mother uses drugs. ◦ Drugs may affect the quality of a man’s sperm. ◦ Drugs increase the chance of miscarriage.

60  Fathers: ◦ Bonding between a father and a baby strengthen the entire family. ◦ Fathers who are closely involved with child care from the beginning are more likely to stay involved with their children as they grow. ◦ Gentle strokes, soft words, and physical closeness can help both parents bond with their child.

61  Mothers: ◦ The six-to-eight week period after birth is called the postpartum period. ◦ Some mothers may experience sadness or depression during this period. This is known as postpartum depression. ◦ Physicians, nurses, or social workers can give new mothers advice on how to care for the baby and how to cope with depression.

62  Infants: ◦ Infants require nearly constant attention. ◦ They cannot feed or take care of themselves. ◦ Feelings of frustration or anxiety are common for the new parent. ◦ A person should never yell at or shake a baby. ◦ Electrical sockets, household products, and sharp objects are just a few of the common objects that must be covered, removed, or kept out of reach.

63  Teen pregnancies increase the risk that parents will drop out of school and live in poverty.  Teens often have to give up some of their education and career goals.

64  According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), teen mothers are less likely to receive financial support from the baby’s father than adult mothers are.  NIH reports that babies born to teen parents are more likely to be born prematurely or have low birth weight.  According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), children born to teens are at increased risk for abuse or neglect.

65  Objectives ◦ Identify the stages of the life cycle. ◦ Identify habits that can help a person stay physically and mentally healthy into late adulthood. ◦ List ways to care for older family members.

66  Persons pass through a series of stages between birth and death known as the life cycle.

67  Infancy (birth to 1 year) ◦ This stage involves the most rapid period of growth. Infants rely on adults for food, shelter, and clothing. The challenge of infancy is to learn to trust other people.  Early Childhood (1 to 3 years) ◦ During this stage, children learn from adults. They learn to stay safe and become toilet trained. Their challenge is to learn self-control.

68  Middle Childhood (3 to 6 years) ◦ This is a phase of originality, learning, and skill development. Adults teach children how to make responsible choices. The challenge of middle childhood is to develop a conscience.  Late Childhood (6 to 12 years) ◦ During this stage, children explore their physical surroundings and develop new skills, such as math and reading. The challenge of late childhood is to feel capable.

69  Adolescence (12 to 18 years) ◦ Adolescence prepares children to become responsible adults. The challenge of adolescence is to develop a sense of identity.  Transition to Adulthood (18 to 30 years) ◦ This is the period in which adults establish their lives away from their family. The challenge is to leave home, support oneself, and perhaps to marry and start a family.

70  First Adulthood (30 to 45 years) ◦ During this stage, adults raise children and/or work on goals. The challenge of first adulthood is to balance the demands of relationships and family life with work.  Second Adulthood (45 to 70 years) ◦ Adults in this stage evaluate and revise their goals. The challenge for those with children is to focus energy in another direction. The challenge for those without children is to show a renewed interest in relationship to the self, others, and the community.

71  Late Adulthood (70+ years) ◦ Adults in this category must cope with the loss of friends and loved ones. Their challenge is to feel satisfied with the way they have lived and to focus on activities that will help them stay healthy as they age.

72  The number of years you live is your chronological age.  How well your body parts function is your biological age. I’m 27 years old I’m 80 years old

73  No one can prevent aging, but you can age healthfuly. ◦ Choose Healthful foods ◦ Make physical activity a part of your daily life ◦ Protect yourself from the sun ◦ Do not smoke ◦ Get regular medical checkups ◦ Stay informed ◦ Talk in-depth ◦ Stretch your word power ◦ Expand your abilities

74  Stay Connected ◦ Your visits, phone calls, letters, and e-mails provide companionship. They help an older relative feel less isolated and alone.  Provide assistance ◦ Notice when a simple chore or errand seems to become difficult. Offer to do the laundry or rake the yard if your relative has a hard time bending. Offer to go shopping once a week.

75  A caregiver is a person who provides care for someone who needs assistance.

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