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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) ‏ Chapter 13 Emotion James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) ‏ Chapter 13 Emotion James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) ‏ Chapter 13 Emotion James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

3 Emotion  Emotion  a response of the whole organism  physiological arousal  expressive behaviors  conscious experience

4 Theories of Emotion  Does your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?

5 Emotion  Willam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion.  We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.  The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling.

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9 James-Lange Theory of Emotion  Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Fear (emotion)‏ Pounding heart (arousal)‏ Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)‏

10 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion  The physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously.  They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.

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12 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion  Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:  physiological responses  subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)‏ Pounding heart (arousal)‏ Fear (emotion)‏

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15 Two-Factor Theory of Emotion  Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories.  They happen at the same time but…  People who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli.  Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.

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19 Schachter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion  To experience emotion one must:  be physically aroused  cognitively label the arousal Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion)‏ Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)‏ Pounding heart (arousal)‏

20 Emotional Arousal Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing)‏ Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming)‏ Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

21 Arousal and Performance  Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well- learned tasks Performance level LowArousalHigh Difficult tasksEasy tasks

22 Expressing Emotion Smiles can show different emotions: A) Mask anger B) Overly polite C) Soften criticism D) Reluctant compliance

23 Expressed Emotion  People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)

24 Expressing Emotion (Paul Ekman)  Culturally universal expressions

25 Facial Feedback Hypothesis  Activity (materials needed: comics and Q- tips)  Which of the 3 theories does this activity support? Why?

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27 Experiencing Emotion  The Amygdala- a neural key to fear learning

28 Experiencing Emotion  Catharsis  emotional release  catharsis hypothesis  “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges  Feel-good, do-good phenomenon  people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

29 Experiencing Emotion  Does money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4, Percentage very happy Personal income

30 Experiencing Emotion  Adaptation-Level Phenomenon  tendency to form judgements relative to a “neutral” level  Relative Deprivation  perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

31 Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion Strong Neutral Strong First experience (a)‏ Strong Neutral Strong After repeated experiences (b)‏

32 Happiness is... Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries)‏ Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful)‏ Education levels Parenthood (having children or not)‏ Physical attractiveness

33 Theories of Emotions Review


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