2Theories of Emotions Physiological activation - Physical response Emotion are a mix of:Physiological activation - Physical responseExpressive behaviors - BehaviorConscious experience – Thinking and Feelings
3James-Lange Theory of Emotion. The StimulusWilliam James and Carl Lange completely opposed to common-sense view.Proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.The body changes ultimately cause to feel emotionsPhysical ReactionEmotion
4Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion How can that theory be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states.The physiological change (body’s arousal) and cognitive awareness (emotions) must occur separately (but simultaneously).Routed to the cortex and the Sympathetic NS at the same time by the Thalamus.
5Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer explains emotions more completely that the other two theories.They happen at the same time but…To experience the emotion the person must be physically aroused AND cognitively label the arousal.Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
7Two Routes to Emotion Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological Lazarus/SchachterAppraisalEventEmotionalresponsePhysiologicalactivationExpressivebehaviorSubjectiveexperienceZajonc/LeDoux
8Lie Detectors Called a polygraph. Measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion:PerspirationHeart rateBlood pressureBreathing changes
9Lie Detectors 50 Innocents 50 Thieves --1/3 of innocent declared guilty--1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)PercentageInnocentpeopleGuilty8070605040302010Judged innocent by polygraphJudged guilty by polygraph
10Lie Detectors Is 70% accuracy good? What about 95% accuracy? *Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guilty.--test all employees--285 will be wrongly accusedWhat about 95% accuracy?*Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty.--test all employees (including 999 innocents)--50 wrongly declared guilty--1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)
14Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks.For MOST tasks though, you want moderate levels of arousal.PerformancelevelDifficult tasksEasy tasksLowArousalHigh
15Role of Neurotransmitters & Hormones Important Roles in Emotion:Low serotonin Depression.High levels of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Anger and Fear.
16The Limbic System and Emotions The Amygdala is a neural key to fear learning.Also involved in rage and aggression.Integrates the hormonal and neural emotional aspects.
17Role of the Cortex and Emotions In general…the right hemisphere specializes in negative emotions and…the left hemisphere specializes in positive emotions.
18Expressed EmotionPeople more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one.
19Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Number of expressions MenWomenSad Happy ScaryFilm Type161412108642Numberofexpressions
20Expressing EmotionNon-verbal communication - gestures, body language, facial expressions.Introverts – better at reading other’s emotions.Extroverts – easier to read.
21Culture and Emotional Expression Gestures and their meaning vary from culture to culture.Individualist cultures show more intense and prolonged emotions.
22Detecting and Computing Emotion Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss the research on reading and misreading facial and behavioral indicators of emotion.Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
23Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them.OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the culture-specific and culturally universal aspects of emotional expression, and explain how emotional expressions can enhance survival.
24Experienced Emotion Infants’ naturally occurring emotions Joy B) Anger C) Interest D) Disgust E) Surprise F) Sadness G) FearA. Joy B. Anger C. Interest D. Disgust E. Surprise F. Sadness G. Fear
25Two Dimensions of Emotion PositivevalenceNegativeHigharousalLowpleasantrelaxationjoysadnessfearangerBlue = PsychologicalPink = Physiological
26AngerAnger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato B.C.).
27AngerPeople generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.If you’re angry at someone about something… tell them directly.
28Anger - Cultural & Gender Differences Boys tend to respond to anger by moving away from that situation or exercising, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.Anger also breeds prejudice (Like the 9/11 attacks did).Individualized cultures encourage venting; not collectivist cultures.
29Fear Fear can be learned through conditioning… as well as through observation.
30Don’t forget the Amygdala! The neural key to fear learning.Like a guard dog, it is continuously alert for threats.
31Happiness People who are happy… perceive the world as being safer. make decisions easily.are more cooperative.live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.
32Predictors of Happiness Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend to…Have high self-esteemBe optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractiveness
33Experiencing Emotion Catharsis: Emotional release. Catharsis hypothesis:“Releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
34Experiencing Emotion Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
35Experiencing Emotion Subjective Well-Being: Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.
37Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,000Percentage very happyPersonal income
38Values & Life Satisfaction Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction.
39Adaptation-Level Phenomenon Tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level.If you get a raise in salary, you feel good. But once you adjust to that new salary level, you need another raise to get that same feeling again.Success and failure are always relative to our recent experiences.
40Experiencing Emotion Relative Deprivation: Perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.