Theories of Emotions Emotion are a mix of: Physiological activation - Physical response Expressive behaviors - Behavior Conscious experience – Thinking and Feelings
James-Lange Theory of Emotion. William James and Carl Lange completely opposed to common- sense view. Proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. The body changes ultimately cause to feel emotions The Stimulus Physical Reaction Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion How can that theory be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states. The physiological change (body’s arousal) and cognitive awareness (emotions) must occur separately (but simultaneously). Routed to the cortex and the Sympathetic NS at the same time by the Thalamus.
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer explains emotions more completely that the other two theories. They happen at the same time but… To experience the emotion the person must be physically aroused AND cognitively label the arousal. Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological activation Expressive behavior Subjective experience Lazarus/Schachter Zajonc/LeDoux Two Routes to Emotion
Lie Detectors Called a polygraph. Measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion: Perspiration Heart rate Blood pressure Breathing changes
Lie Detectors 50 Innocents 50 Thieves --1/3 of innocent declared guilty --1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984) Percentage Innocent people Guilty people 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph
Lie Detectors Is 70% accuracy good? *Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guilty. --test all employees --285 will be wrongly accused What about 95% accuracy? *Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty. --test all employees (including 999 innocents) --50 wrongly declared guilty --1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)
Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks. For MOST tasks though, you want moderate levels of arousal. Performance level LowArousal High Difficult tasksEasy tasks
Role of Neurotransmitters & Hormones Important Roles in Emotion: Low serotonin Depression. High levels of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Anger and Fear.
The Limbic System and Emotions The Amygdala is a neural key to fear learning. Also involved in rage and aggression. Integrates the hormonal and neural emotional aspects.
Role of the Cortex and Emotions In general… the right hemisphere specializes in negative emotions and… the left hemisphere specializes in positive emotions.
Expressed Emotion People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one.
Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Number of expressions
Expressing Emotion Non-verbal communication - gestures, body language, facial expressions. Introverts – better at reading other’s emotions. Extroverts – easier to read.
Culture and Emotional Expression Gestures and their meaning vary from culture to culture. Individualist cultures show more intense and prolonged emotions. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dwJ-wwF9XVs
Detecting and Computing Emotion Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time. Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc
Positive valence Negative valence High arousal Low arousal pleasant relaxation joy sadness fear anger Two Dimensions of Emotion Blue = Psychological Pink = Physiological
Anger Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19 B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-149 B.C.).
Anger People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable. People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains. If you’re angry at someone about something… tell them directly.
Anger - Cultural & Gender Differences Boys tend to respond to anger by moving away from that situation or exercising, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music. Anger also breeds prejudice (Like the 9/11 attacks did). Individualized cultures encourage venting; not collectivist cultures.
Fear Fear can be learned through conditioning… as well as through observation.
Don’t forget the Amygdala! The neural key to fear learning. Like a guard dog, it is continuously alert for threats.
Happiness People who are happy… perceive the world as being safer. make decisions easily. are more cooperative. live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.
Predictors of Happiness Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to… Have high self-esteem Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness
Experiencing Emotion Catharsis: Emotional release. Catharsis hypothesis: “Releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Experiencing Emotion Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
Experiencing Emotion Subjective Well-Being: Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.
Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Percentage very happy Personal income
Values & Life Satisfaction Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction.
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon Tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level. If you get a raise in salary, you feel good. But once you adjust to that new salary level, you need another raise to get that same feeling again. Success and failure are always relative to our recent experiences.
Experiencing Emotion Relative Deprivation: Perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.