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Chapter 27: WWII By: Sarah Phillips. Map of Europe Before the War.

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1 Chapter 27: WWII By: Sarah Phillips

2 Map of Europe Before the War

3 Before the War ( ) Hitler’s Role Hitler’s Role Germans were threatened by the Slavs. Aryans were the superior race. Germans were threatened by the Slavs. Aryans were the superior race. Believed in Lebensraum Believed in Lebensraum Russian Revolution created conditions for Germany’s acquisition of the east. Russian Revolution created conditions for Germany’s acquisition of the east. “Diplomatic Revolution” ( ) “Diplomatic Revolution” ( ) Hitler became chancellor of Germany Jan. 30, 1933 Hitler became chancellor of Germany Jan. 30, 1933 Emphasized that Germany only wanted to revise the Versailles treaty by peaceful means. Emphasized that Germany only wanted to revise the Versailles treaty by peaceful means. Oct Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations. Oct Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations.

4 Before the War “Diplomatic Revolution” “Diplomatic Revolution” Hitler believed France and Britain wouldn’t take action against him. Hitler believed France and Britain wouldn’t take action against him. March 9, 1935 Hitler announced the creation of a new air force and the introduction of a military draft that would expand the army from 100,000 to 550,000. March 9, 1935 Hitler announced the creation of a new air force and the introduction of a military draft that would expand the army from 100,000 to 550,000. France, Great Britain, and Italy warned Hitler but no action was taken. France, Great Britain, and Italy warned Hitler but no action was taken. Germany agreed to the Anglo-German Naval Pact June 18, Germany agreed to the Anglo-German Naval Pact June 18, The pact allowed Germany to build a navy that would be 35% of the size of the British navy with equal submarines. The pact allowed Germany to build a navy that would be 35% of the size of the British navy with equal submarines.

5 Before the War “Diplomatic Revolution” “Diplomatic Revolution” British started a policy of appeasement based on their desire to avoid war. British started a policy of appeasement based on their desire to avoid war. March 7, 1936 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland. France didn’t act because they needed the support of Britain. March 7, 1936 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland. France didn’t act because they needed the support of Britain. Oct 1936 Mussolini and Hitler made the Rome-Berlin Axis. Oct 1936 Mussolini and Hitler made the Rome-Berlin Axis. Nov Germany and Japan made the Anti-Comintern Pact Nov Germany and Japan made the Anti-Comintern Pact “Diplomatic Revolution” was achieved by the end of 1936 “Diplomatic Revolution” was achieved by the end of 1936

6 Before the War Path to War in Europe ( ) Path to War in Europe ( ) Nov. 5, 1937, Hitler announced his future aims: conquest of living space in the east. Nov. 5, 1937, Hitler announced his future aims: conquest of living space in the east. Chamberlain, prime minister of Britain, was a strong advocate of appeasement. Chamberlain, prime minister of Britain, was a strong advocate of appeasement. Hitler threatened Austria with an invasion and coerced the Austrian chancellor, von Schuschnigg, into putting Austrian Nazis in control. Hitler threatened Austria with an invasion and coerced the Austrian chancellor, von Schuschnigg, into putting Austrian Nazis in control. The new Austrian government invited German troops to enter Austria, The new Austrian government invited German troops to enter Austria, March 13, 1938, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany. March 13, 1938, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany.

7 Before the War The Path to War in Europe The Path to War in Europe Germany asked for the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia that was home to 3 million Germans. Germany asked for the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia that was home to 3 million Germans. Sept. 15, 1938 Hitler demanded the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany with threats of “world war.” Sept. 15, 1938 Hitler demanded the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany with threats of “world war.” At the Munich Conference, Sept. 29, the British, French, Germans and Italians reached an agreement that met all of Germany’s goals. At the Munich Conference, Sept. 29, the British, French, Germans and Italians reached an agreement that met all of Germany’s goals. German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland, German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland, Was the high point of Western appeasement of Hitler. Was the high point of Western appeasement of Hitler. Chamberlain boasted that the agreement meant “peace for our time.” Chamberlain boasted that the agreement meant “peace for our time.”

8 Before the War The Path to War in Europe The Path to War in Europe Hitler prepared for full liquidation of Czechoslovakia Oct Hitler prepared for full liquidation of Czechoslovakia Oct The Slovaks declared their independence of the Czechs and became a puppet state of Germany. The Slovaks declared their independence of the Czechs and became a puppet state of Germany. Hitler began to demand the return to Germany of Danzig. Britain offered to protect Poland in the event of war. Hitler began to demand the return to Germany of Danzig. Britain offered to protect Poland in the event of war. France and Britain began to make political and military negotiations with Stalin but had no success. France and Britain began to make political and military negotiations with Stalin but had no success. Hitler ordered Germany to prepare for the invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, Hitler ordered Germany to prepare for the invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, 1939.

9 Before the War The Path to War in Europe The Path to War in Europe Hitler negotiated a non-aggression pact with Stalin on Aug. 13, Hitler negotiated a non-aggression pact with Stalin on Aug. 13, Hitler would conquer west Poland while the Soviets conquered the east. Hitler would conquer west Poland while the Soviets conquered the east. Britain and France declared war on Germany Sept. 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany Sept. 3, Sept. 17 the Soviets sent troops into east Poland. Sept. 17 the Soviets sent troops into east Poland. The Path to War in Asia The Path to War in Asia By the early 1930s Japan was experiencing severe internal tensions. By the early 1930s Japan was experiencing severe internal tensions.

10 Before the War The Path to War in Asia The Path to War in Asia Population rose from 30 million in 1870 to 80 million by 1937 Population rose from 30 million in 1870 to 80 million by 1937 Tariff barriers made by Western nations in the 1930s devastated Japan economically and politically. Tariff barriers made by Western nations in the 1930s devastated Japan economically and politically. Right-wing patriotic societies allied themselves with the army and navy to push a program of expansion at the expense of China and the Soviet Union, while the navy hoped to conquer British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. Right-wing patriotic societies allied themselves with the army and navy to push a program of expansion at the expense of China and the Soviet Union, while the navy hoped to conquer British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. In 1935, Japan began to construct a modern naval fleet, and after 1936, the armed forces exercised much influence over government. In 1935, Japan began to construct a modern naval fleet, and after 1936, the armed forces exercised much influence over government.

11 Before the War The Path to War in Asia The Path to War in Asia Sept Japanese soldiers seized Manchuria/Manchuko. Sept Japanese soldiers seized Manchuria/Manchuko. League of Nations condemned Japan, so Japan withdrew. League of Nations condemned Japan, so Japan withdrew. Japanese were granted authority to administer areas of North China but conflicts arose. Japanese were granted authority to administer areas of North China but conflicts arose. July 1937 a clash between Chinese and Japanese forces broke out at the Marco Polo Bridge. Was a major conflict. July 1937 a clash between Chinese and Japanese forces broke out at the Marco Polo Bridge. Was a major conflict. Japanese advanced up the Yangtze valley and seized the Chinese capital on Nanjing but Kai-shek refused to capitulate and moved his government to Hankou. Japanese advanced up the Yangtze valley and seized the Chinese capital on Nanjing but Kai-shek refused to capitulate and moved his government to Hankou. When Japanese occupied Indochina in July 1941, the Americans cut off sales of scrap iron and oil to Japan. When Japanese occupied Indochina in July 1941, the Americans cut off sales of scrap iron and oil to Japan. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor out of spite for America’s actions. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor out of spite for America’s actions.

12 The Course of WWII Victory and Stalemate Victory and Stalemate Hitler unleashed a Blitzkrieg and stunned Europe with its speed and efficiency. Hitler unleashed a Blitzkrieg and stunned Europe with its speed and efficiency. Panzer divisions supported by airplanes quickly broke through Polish lines. Panzer divisions supported by airplanes quickly broke through Polish lines. Regular infantry units then moved in to hold the newly conquered land. Regular infantry units then moved in to hold the newly conquered land. Soon after, Soviet forces attacked eastern Poland. Poland surrendered within 4 weeks. Soon after, Soviet forces attacked eastern Poland. Poland surrendered within 4 weeks. Sept 28, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union officially divided Poland between them. Sept 28, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union officially divided Poland between them.

13 The Course of WWII Victory and Stalemate Victory and Stalemate Between 1930 and 1935 France built the Maginot Line along its border with Germany. Between 1930 and 1935 France built the Maginot Line along its border with Germany. After a winter of waiting for attack (“phony war”) Hitler resumed war on France April 9, 1940 with another Blitzkrieg against Denmark and Norway. After a winter of waiting for attack (“phony war”) Hitler resumed war on France April 9, 1940 with another Blitzkrieg against Denmark and Norway. May 10, the Germans launched their attack on the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. May 10, the Germans launched their attack on the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. The main assault through the Ardennes forest and Luxembourg was a surprise. They broke through the Maginot Line and raced across northern France. The main assault through the Ardennes forest and Luxembourg was a surprise. They broke through the Maginot Line and raced across northern France.

14 The Course of WWII Victory and Stalemate Victory and Stalemate The French troops and the entire British army were trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk. 330,000 were saved by British civilians. The French troops and the entire British army were trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk. 330,000 were saved by British civilians. On June 5, the Germans launched another offensive into southern France. On June 5, the Germans launched another offensive into southern France. June 10, Mussolini declared war on France and invaded from the south. June 10, Mussolini declared war on France and invaded from the south. The French surrendered on June 22. The French surrendered on June 22. German armies occupied 3/5ths of France while Petain established a Vichy France over the remainder. German armies occupied 3/5ths of France while Petain established a Vichy France over the remainder.

15 The Course of WWII Victory and Stalemate Victory and Stalemate May 10, 1940, Churchill replaced Chamberlain. May 10, 1940, Churchill replaced Chamberlain. Germany hoped Britain would make peaces but Churchill refused so Hitler prepared for an invasion of Britain. Germany hoped Britain would make peaces but Churchill refused so Hitler prepared for an invasion of Britain. Hitler knew an invasion would only be possible if he controlled the air. Hitler knew an invasion would only be possible if he controlled the air. August 1940, the Luftwaffe launched an offensive against British air and naval bases, harbors, communications centers and war industries. August 1940, the Luftwaffe launched an offensive against British air and naval bases, harbors, communications centers and war industries. The Ultra intelligence operation gave the British air force information about the specific targets of German air attacks. The Ultra intelligence operation gave the British air force information about the specific targets of German air attacks.

16 The Course of WWII Victory and Stalemate Victory and Stalemate In Sept. Hitler ordered a shift from military targets to massive bombing of cities to break the British moral in retaliation to a British bombing on Berlin. In Sept. Hitler ordered a shift from military targets to massive bombing of cities to break the British moral in retaliation to a British bombing on Berlin. The British rebuilt their air strength. The British rebuilt their air strength. By the end of Sept., Germany lost the Battle of Britain. By the end of Sept., Germany lost the Battle of Britain. Hitler pursued a Mediterranean strategy which would involve capturing Egypt and the Suez Canal and closing the Mediterranean to British ships, cutting off Britain’s oil supply. The strategy failed. Hitler pursued a Mediterranean strategy which would involve capturing Egypt and the Suez Canal and closing the Mediterranean to British ships, cutting off Britain’s oil supply. The strategy failed. July 1940 Hitler told his army leaders to begin preparations for the invasion of the Soviet Union. July 1940 Hitler told his army leaders to begin preparations for the invasion of the Soviet Union.

17 The Course of WWII Victory and Stalemate Victory and Stalemate To secure Hitler’s Balkan flank, German troops seized both Yugoslavia and Greece in April To secure Hitler’s Balkan flank, German troops seized both Yugoslavia and Greece in April They invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, They invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, By Nov. one Germany army group swept through the Ukraine while a second was besieging Leningrad; a third approached Moscow. By Nov. one Germany army group swept through the Ukraine while a second was besieging Leningrad; a third approached Moscow. A counterattack in Dec by the Soviets exhausted by Nazi victories ended the year for the Germans. A counterattack in Dec by the Soviets exhausted by Nazi victories ended the year for the Germans.

18 The Course of WWII The War in Asia The War in Asia Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Dec 8 the U.S. declared war on Japan. Dec 8 the U.S. declared war on Japan. 3 days later Hitler declared war on the U.S. 3 days later Hitler declared war on the U.S. Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies and occupied islands in the Pacific. Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies and occupied islands in the Pacific. By the spring of 1942 almost all of South East Asia and much of the West Pacific had fallen into Japanese hands. By the spring of 1942 almost all of South East Asia and much of the West Pacific had fallen into Japanese hands. Tokyo created the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and announced its intention to liberate the colonial areas of South East Asia from Western colonial rule. Tokyo created the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and announced its intention to liberate the colonial areas of South East Asia from Western colonial rule.

19 The Course of WWII The Turning Point of the War ( ) The Turning Point of the War ( ) The entry of the U.S. created the Grand Alliance that ultimately defeated the Axis powers. The entry of the U.S. created the Grand Alliance that ultimately defeated the Axis powers. The 3 major allies had to overcome some mutual suspicions. The 3 major allies had to overcome some mutual suspicions. 2 factors aided the process: 2 factors aided the process: Americans had to accepts the British and Soviet contention that the defeat of Germany should be first priority for the U.S. Americans had to accepts the British and Soviet contention that the defeat of Germany should be first priority for the U.S. U.S. increased the quantity of trucks, planes, and other arms they sent to the British and Soviets. U.S. increased the quantity of trucks, planes, and other arms they sent to the British and Soviets. The tacit agreement of the 3 chief Allies to stress military operations while ignoring political differences and larger strategic issues concerning any postwar settlement. The tacit agreement of the 3 chief Allies to stress military operations while ignoring political differences and larger strategic issues concerning any postwar settlement.

20 The Course of WWII The Turning Point of the War The Turning Point of the War At the beginning of 1943, the Allies agreed to fight until the Axis powers surrendered unconditionally. At the beginning of 1943, the Allies agreed to fight until the Axis powers surrendered unconditionally. Reinforcements in North Africa enabled the Afrika Korps under General Rommel to break through the British defenses in Egypt and advance toward Alexandria. Reinforcements in North Africa enabled the Afrika Korps under General Rommel to break through the British defenses in Egypt and advance toward Alexandria. Spring 1942 a renewed German offensive in the Soviet union led to the capture of the entire Crimea. Spring 1942 a renewed German offensive in the Soviet union led to the capture of the entire Crimea. In North Africa British forces stopped Rommel’s troops at El Alamein in the summer of In North Africa British forces stopped Rommel’s troops at El Alamein in the summer of In Nov British and American forces invaded French North Africa and forced the German and Italian troops to surrender in May In Nov British and American forces invaded French North Africa and forced the German and Italian troops to surrender in May 1943.

21 The Course of WWII The Turning Point of the War The Turning Point of the War Between Nov and Feb German troops were stopped in Stalingrad, then encircled, and finally forced to surrender on Feb. 2, Between Nov and Feb German troops were stopped in Stalingrad, then encircled, and finally forced to surrender on Feb. 2, The entire German 6 th Army of 300,00 men was lost. The entire German 6 th Army of 300,00 men was lost. By Feb. 1943, German forces in the Soviet Union were back to their positions of June By Feb. 1943, German forces in the Soviet Union were back to their positions of June In the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 7-8, 1942, American naval forces stopped the Japanese advance and temporarily relieved Australia of the threat of an invasion. In the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 7-8, 1942, American naval forces stopped the Japanese advance and temporarily relieved Australia of the threat of an invasion. June 4, at the Battle of Midway Island, American planes destroyed all 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and established naval superiority in the Pacific. June 4, at the Battle of Midway Island, American planes destroyed all 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and established naval superiority in the Pacific.

22 The Course of WWII The Last Years of the War The Last Years of the War After the Axis forces surrendered in Tunisia on May 13, 1943 the Allies crossed the Mediterranean and carried war to Italy. After the Axis forces surrendered in Tunisia on May 13, 1943 the Allies crossed the Mediterranean and carried war to Italy. After taking Sicily, Allied troops began the invasion of the mainland of Italy in Sept. After taking Sicily, Allied troops began the invasion of the mainland of Italy in Sept. Rome did not fall to the Allies till June 4, Rome did not fall to the Allies till June 4, Allies tricked Germans into believing that the invasion would come on the flat plains of North France. Allies tricked Germans into believing that the invasion would come on the flat plains of North France. Instead the Allies, under command of Eisenhower, landed 5 assault divisions on the Normandy beaches on June 6. Instead the Allies, under command of Eisenhower, landed 5 assault divisions on the Normandy beaches on June 6. Forces established a beachhead. Forces established a beachhead.

23 The Course of WWII The Last Years of the War The Last Years of the War Within 3 months they had landed 2 million men and a half- million vehicles that pushed inland and broke through German defensive lines. Within 3 months they had landed 2 million men and a half- million vehicles that pushed inland and broke through German defensive lines. Allied troops moved south and east and liberated Paris by Aug. Allied troops moved south and east and liberated Paris by Aug. Battle of the Bulge showed the Allies advance. Battle of the Bulge showed the Allies advance. By March 1945 Allied armies crossed the Rhine Rivers and advanced further into Germany. By March 1945 Allied armies crossed the Rhine Rivers and advanced further into Germany. At the end of April, Allied forces in North Germany moved toward the Elbe River, where they linked up with the Soviets. At the end of April, Allied forces in North Germany moved toward the Elbe River, where they linked up with the Soviets.

24 The Course of WWII The Last Years of the War The Last Years of the War German forces were defeated by the Soviets at the Battle of Kursk (July 5-12) the greatest tank battle of WWII. German forces were defeated by the Soviets at the Battle of Kursk (July 5-12) the greatest tank battle of WWII. Germans lost 18 of their best panzer divisions. Germans lost 18 of their best panzer divisions. Soviets occupied Ukraine by Soviets occupied Ukraine by Soviets occupied Warsaw in Jan and entered Berlin in April. Soviets occupied Warsaw in Jan and entered Berlin in April. Jan Hitler moved to a bunker under Berlin. He committed suicide on April 30. Jan Hitler moved to a bunker under Berlin. He committed suicide on April 30. May 7, German commanders surrendered. May 7, German commanders surrendered.

25 The Course of WWII The Last Years of the War The Last Years of the War Beginning in 1943, American forces had gone on the offensive and advanced across the Pacific. Beginning in 1943, American forces had gone on the offensive and advanced across the Pacific. Truman and his advisors became convinced that American troops might suffer casualties so they dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Truman and his advisors became convinced that American troops might suffer casualties so they dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese surrendered on Aug 14. Japanese surrendered on Aug 14. In WWII 17 million died in battle. 18 million civilians perished. Total losses estimated at 50 million. In WWII 17 million died in battle. 18 million civilians perished. Total losses estimated at 50 million.

26 Map of Germany’s Expansion

27 The New Order The Nazi Empire The Nazi Empire Europe was split in 2 ways: Europe was split in 2 ways: Some states were directly annexed by Germany and made into German provinces. Some states were directly annexed by Germany and made into German provinces. Most of Europe was administered by German officials combined with indirect control from collaborationist regimes. Most of Europe was administered by German officials combined with indirect control from collaborationist regimes. Racial considerations played an important role in how conquered peoples were treated in the Nazi New Order. Racial considerations played an important role in how conquered peoples were treated in the Nazi New Order. German civil administrations were established in Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands because those people were considered Aryan. German civil administrations were established in Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands because those people were considered Aryan.

28 The New Order The Nazi Empire The Nazi Empire Inferior Latin peoples were given military administration. Inferior Latin peoples were given military administration. By 1843 occupied territories of northern and western Europe were exploited for material goods and workers for Germany’s war needs. By 1843 occupied territories of northern and western Europe were exploited for material goods and workers for Germany’s war needs. Nazis began to implement their racial program soon after the conquest of Poland. Nazis began to implement their racial program soon after the conquest of Poland. Himmler was put in charge of German resettlement plans in the east. Himmler was put in charge of German resettlement plans in the east. His task was to evacuate inferior people and replace them with Germans. His task was to evacuate inferior people and replace them with Germans.

29 The New Order The Nazi Empire The Nazi Empire By 1942, 2 million ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland. By 1942, 2 million ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland. After war the Poles, Ukrainians, and Soviets would become slave labor and German people would settle on the land to Germanize them. After war the Poles, Ukrainians, and Soviets would become slave labor and German people would settle on the land to Germanize them. In Eastern Europe, economic exploitation was direct and severe. In Eastern Europe, economic exploitation was direct and severe. Germans seized raw materials, machines and food, leaving only enough to maintain local peoples at a bare subsistence level. Germans seized raw materials, machines and food, leaving only enough to maintain local peoples at a bare subsistence level.

30 The New Order The Nazi Empire The Nazi Empire In Western Europe military supplies, and important raw materials were taken. In Western Europe military supplies, and important raw materials were taken. Labor shortages led to mobilization of foreign labor for Germany. Labor shortages led to mobilization of foreign labor for Germany. 4 million Soviet prisoners of war became a source of labor but 3 million died from neglect. 4 million Soviet prisoners of war became a source of labor but 3 million died from neglect. In 1942 a special office was created to recruit labor for German farms and industries. In 1942 a special office was created to recruit labor for German farms and industries. By million foreign workers were laboring in Germany. By million foreign workers were laboring in Germany.

31 The New Order Resistance Movements Resistance Movements German policies toward conquered peoples lead to the emergence of resistance movements throughout Europe. German policies toward conquered peoples lead to the emergence of resistance movements throughout Europe. Some anti-Nazi groups from occupied countries, such as the Free French movement under Charles de Gaulle, created governments-in-exile in London. Some anti-Nazi groups from occupied countries, such as the Free French movement under Charles de Gaulle, created governments-in-exile in London. In Yugoslavia Josip Broz, known as Tito, led a band of guerrillas against German occupation forces. In Yugoslavia Josip Broz, known as Tito, led a band of guerrillas against German occupation forces. Communists throughout Europe assumed leadership roles in underground resistance movements, which led to conflict with other local resistance groups. Communists throughout Europe assumed leadership roles in underground resistance movements, which led to conflict with other local resistance groups.

32 The New Order Resistance Movements Resistance Movements Women also joined these movements in large numbers. Women also joined these movements in large numbers. Women served as message carriers, planted bombs in Nazi headquarters, assassinated Nazi officers, published and spread anti-German underground newspapers, spied on German military movements and positions, and used shopping bags to carry weapons, medicines, and money to help their causes. Women served as message carriers, planted bombs in Nazi headquarters, assassinated Nazi officers, published and spread anti-German underground newspapers, spied on German military movements and positions, and used shopping bags to carry weapons, medicines, and money to help their causes. The White Rose movement in Germany involved an attempt by a small group at the University of Munich to distribute pamphlets denouncing the Nazi regime. The group was executed. The White Rose movement in Germany involved an attempt by a small group at the University of Munich to distribute pamphlets denouncing the Nazi regime. The group was executed.

33 The New Order Resistance Movements Resistance Movements Communist resistance groups were mostly crushed by the Gestapo. Communist resistance groups were mostly crushed by the Gestapo. Colonel Count Claus von Stauffenberg believed that only the elimination of Hitler would bring the overthrow of the Nazi regime. Colonel Count Claus von Stauffenberg believed that only the elimination of Hitler would bring the overthrow of the Nazi regime. On July 20, 1944, a bomb planted by Stauffenberg in Hitler’s East Prussian headquarters exploded, but it failed to kill Hitler. On July 20, 1944, a bomb planted by Stauffenberg in Hitler’s East Prussian headquarters exploded, but it failed to kill Hitler. 5,000 people were executed, and Hitler remained in control of Germany. 5,000 people were executed, and Hitler remained in control of Germany.

34 The New Order The Holocaust The Holocaust Racial struggle was a key element in Hitler’s ideology: Aryan Vs Jews Racial struggle was a key element in Hitler’s ideology: Aryan Vs Jews By the beginning of 1939, Nazi policy focused on promoting “emigration” of German Jews from Germany. By the beginning of 1939, Nazi policy focused on promoting “emigration” of German Jews from Germany. Once the war began in September 1939, there was discussion of the Madagascar Plan, which aspired to the mass shipment of Jews to the island of Madagascar. It was impracticable. Once the war began in September 1939, there was discussion of the Madagascar Plan, which aspired to the mass shipment of Jews to the island of Madagascar. It was impracticable. The SS was given responsibility for the Final Solution to the Jewish problem– the annihilation of the Jewish people. The SS was given responsibility for the Final Solution to the Jewish problem– the annihilation of the Jewish people.

35 The New Order The Holocaust The Holocaust Heydrich was given administrative responsibility for the Final Solution. Heydrich was given administrative responsibility for the Final Solution. Heydrich ordered the special strike forces (Einsatzgruppen) that he had created to round up all Polish Jews and concentrate them in ghettos. Heydrich ordered the special strike forces (Einsatzgruppen) that he had created to round up all Polish Jews and concentrate them in ghettos. In June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen were given new responsibilities as mobile killing units. This created moral problems amongst the SS executioners. In June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen were given new responsibilities as mobile killing units. This created moral problems amongst the SS executioners. The Nazis opted for the systematic annihilation of the European Jewish population in specialty built death camps. The Nazis opted for the systematic annihilation of the European Jewish population in specialty built death camps.

36 The New Order The Holocaust The Holocaust Jews from occupied countries would be collected, packed into freight trains, and shipped to Poland where 6 extermination centers were built. Jews from occupied countries would be collected, packed into freight trains, and shipped to Poland where 6 extermination centers were built. The largest and most infamous was Auschwitz-Birkenau. The largest and most infamous was Auschwitz-Birkenau. Medical technicians chose Zyklon B as the most effective gas for quickly killing large numbers of people in gas chambers. Medical technicians chose Zyklon B as the most effective gas for quickly killing large numbers of people in gas chambers. To inform party and state officials of the procedures for the Final Solution the Wannsee Conference was held outside of Berlin on Jan. 20, To inform party and state officials of the procedures for the Final Solution the Wannsee Conference was held outside of Berlin on Jan. 20, Heydrich outlined the steps: Europe will be combed through for Jews who would be brought to transit ghettos to be transported farther to the east. Heydrich outlined the steps: Europe will be combed through for Jews who would be brought to transit ghettos to be transported farther to the east. The conference worked out all bureaucratic details so that officials would cooperate fully in the final elimination of the Jews. The conference worked out all bureaucratic details so that officials would cooperate fully in the final elimination of the Jews.

37 The New Order The Holocaust The Holocaust Shipments of Jews depended on the cooperation of Germany’s Transport Ministry. Shipments of Jews depended on the cooperation of Germany’s Transport Ministry. About 30% of the arrivals at Auschwitz were sent to a labor camp; the remainder went to gas chambers. After they had been gassed the bodies were burned in the crematoria. About 30% of the arrivals at Auschwitz were sent to a labor camp; the remainder went to gas chambers. After they had been gassed the bodies were burned in the crematoria. The victims’ goods and bodies were used for economic gain. The victims’ goods and bodies were used for economic gain. Some inmates were subjected to “medical” experiments. Some inmates were subjected to “medical” experiments. 90% of the Jewish populations of Poland, the Baltic countries, and Germany were exterminated. 90% of the Jewish populations of Poland, the Baltic countries, and Germany were exterminated. The Holocaust was responsible for the death of nearly 2 out of every 3 European Jews. The Holocaust was responsible for the death of nearly 2 out of every 3 European Jews.

38 Gas Chambers and Crematoria

39 Auschwitz

40 The New Order The Holocaust The Holocaust The Nazis were also responsible for the deliberate death of the Gypsies of Europe and homosexuals. The Nazis were also responsible for the deliberate death of the Gypsies of Europe and homosexuals. The New Order in Asia The New Order in Asia Japan hoped to use its new territories to meet its needs for raw materials as well as to serve as an outlet for Japanese manufactured goods. Japan hoped to use its new territories to meet its needs for raw materials as well as to serve as an outlet for Japanese manufactured goods. To provide a structure for the arrangement, Japanese leaders set up the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. To provide a structure for the arrangement, Japanese leaders set up the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Independent governments under Japanese tutelage were established in Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Independent governments under Japanese tutelage were established in Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

41 The New Order The New Order in Asia The New Order in Asia The economic resources of the colonies were exploited for the benefit of the Japanese war machine, while natives were recruited to serve in local military units or were conscripted to work on public works projects. The economic resources of the colonies were exploited for the benefit of the Japanese war machine, while natives were recruited to serve in local military units or were conscripted to work on public works projects. Tens of thousands of Korean women were forced to serve as “comfort women” for Japanese troops. Tens of thousands of Korean women were forced to serve as “comfort women” for Japanese troops. In building the Burma-Thailand railway in 1943, the Japanese used 361,000 workers. An inadequate diet and hard work in an unhealthy climate led to the death of 102,000 workers by the time the railway was completed. In building the Burma-Thailand railway in 1943, the Japanese used 361,000 workers. An inadequate diet and hard work in an unhealthy climate led to the death of 102,000 workers by the time the railway was completed.

42 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples By the summer of 1944, fully 55% of the British people were in the armed forces or civilian “war work.” By the summer of 1944, fully 55% of the British people were in the armed forces or civilian “war work.” Most British women under 40 were called to do war work of some kind. Most British women under 40 were called to do war work of some kind. The number of women in agriculture doubled as “land girls” performed agricultural labor usually undertaken by men. The number of women in agriculture doubled as “land girls” performed agricultural labor usually undertaken by men. The British government encouraged the “Dig for Victory” campaign to increase food production. Also encouraged the “Grow Your Own Food” campaigns but Britain still faced food shortages. The British government encouraged the “Dig for Victory” campaign to increase food production. Also encouraged the “Grow Your Own Food” campaigns but Britain still faced food shortages.

43 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples During the war the British placed much emphasis on a planned economy. During the war the British placed much emphasis on a planned economy. The British made substantial gains in manufacturing war materials. The British made substantial gains in manufacturing war materials. Known to the Soviets as the Great Patriotic War, the German-Soviet war witnessed the greatest land battles in history. Known to the Soviets as the Great Patriotic War, the German-Soviet war witnessed the greatest land battles in history. Stalin created a system of “supercentralization,” by which he directed military and political affairs. All civil and military organizations were subjected to the control of the Communist Party and the Soviet Police. Stalin created a system of “supercentralization,” by which he directed military and political affairs. All civil and military organizations were subjected to the control of the Communist Party and the Soviet Police.

44 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples The initial defeats of the Soviet Union led to drastic emergency mobilization measures that affected the civilian population. The initial defeats of the Soviet Union led to drastic emergency mobilization measures that affected the civilian population. Leningrad experienced 900 days of siege. Leningrad experienced 900 days of siege. The factories in the western part of the Soviet Union were dismantled and shipped to the interior. The factories in the western part of the Soviet Union were dismantled and shipped to the interior. The widespread military, industrial, and economic mobilization created another Industrial Revolution for the Soviet Union. Stalin labeled it a “battle of machines.” The widespread military, industrial, and economic mobilization created another Industrial Revolution for the Soviet Union. Stalin labeled it a “battle of machines.” Soviet civilians experienced shortages of food and housing. Soviet civilians experienced shortages of food and housing.

45 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples Soviet women worked in industries, mines, and railroads. They dug anti-tank ditches and work as air-raid wardens. Soviet women worked in industries, mines, and railroads. They dug anti-tank ditches and work as air-raid wardens. Soviet women also functioned as snipers and as aircrews in bomber squadrons. Soviet women also functioned as snipers and as aircrews in bomber squadrons. The female pilots who helped defeat the Germans at Stalingrad were known as the “Night Witches.” The female pilots who helped defeat the Germans at Stalingrad were known as the “Night Witches.” Soviet peasants 60% of the military forces and were also expected to feed the people and the Red Army. Soviet peasants 60% of the military forces and were also expected to feed the people and the Red Army. The mobilization of the U.S. had a great impact on American social and economic developments. The mobilization of the U.S. had a great impact on American social and economic developments.

46 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples The American economy was never completely mobilized. The American economy was never completely mobilized. After a production rate of 6 ships a day and $6 billion worth of other military equipment a month, many small factories were shut down due to overproduction. After a production rate of 6 ships a day and $6 billion worth of other military equipment a month, many small factories were shut down due to overproduction. Boomtowns were created, which caused a shortage of houses, health facilities, and schools. Boomtowns were created, which caused a shortage of houses, health facilities, and schools. People migrated to the industrial cities looking for work. People migrated to the industrial cities looking for work. The presence of African American in areas where they had not lived before led to racial tensions and sometimes racial riots. In Detroit, white mobs attacked African Americans. The presence of African American in areas where they had not lived before led to racial tensions and sometimes racial riots. In Detroit, white mobs attacked African Americans.

47 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples Japanese Americans were moved to camps encircled by barbed wire and required to take loyalty oaths. Japanese Americans were moved to camps encircled by barbed wire and required to take loyalty oaths. Hitler was aware of the importance of the home front. He believed that the collapse of the home front in WWI had caused Germany’s defeat. Hitler was aware of the importance of the home front. He believed that the collapse of the home front in WWI had caused Germany’s defeat. To maintain the morale of the home front during the first 2 years of the war, Hitler refused to convert production to armaments. To maintain the morale of the home front during the first 2 years of the war, Hitler refused to convert production to armaments. In 1942, Hitler finally ordered a massive increase in armaments and the size of the army. In 1942, Hitler finally ordered a massive increase in armaments and the size of the army.

48 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples Albert Speer was made minister for armaments and munitions in By eliminating waste and rationalizing procedures, he was able to triple the production. Albert Speer was made minister for armaments and munitions in By eliminating waste and rationalizing procedures, he was able to triple the production. A total mobilization of the economy was not implemented until 1944, when schools, theaters, and cafes were closed and Speer was permitted to use all remaining resources. A total mobilization of the economy was not implemented until 1944, when schools, theaters, and cafes were closed and Speer was permitted to use all remaining resources. Nazi resistance to female employment declined as the war progressed. Nazi resistance to female employment declined as the war progressed. Many women resisted regular employment. Even the introduction of labor conscription for women failed. Many women resisted regular employment. Even the introduction of labor conscription for women failed.

49 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples Wartime Japan was highly mobilized. The government et up a planning board to guarantee its control over all national resources. Wartime Japan was highly mobilized. The government et up a planning board to guarantee its control over all national resources. Traditional habits of obedience and hierarchy were emphasized to encourage citizens to sacrifice their resources. Traditional habits of obedience and hierarchy were emphasized to encourage citizens to sacrifice their resources. Especially important was the code of the bushido, the old code of morality of the samurai. It was revived during the nationalistic fervor of the 1930s. Especially important was the code of the bushido, the old code of morality of the samurai. It was revived during the nationalistic fervor of the 1930s. The code emphasized the obligation to honor and defend emperor, country, and family and to sacrifice one’s life if one failed in the sacred mission. The code emphasized the obligation to honor and defend emperor, country, and family and to sacrifice one’s life if one failed in the sacred mission.

50 The Home Front The Mobilization of Peoples The Mobilization of Peoples Young Japanese were encouraged to volunteer en masse to serve as pilots in the suicide missions, known as kamikaze, against U.S. battleships. Young Japanese were encouraged to volunteer en masse to serve as pilots in the suicide missions, known as kamikaze, against U.S. battleships. Japanese women were encouraged to bear more children and to espouse the slogans of the Greater Japanese Women’s Association. Japanese women were encouraged to bear more children and to espouse the slogans of the Greater Japanese Women’s Association. General Tojo opposed female employment. General Tojo opposed female employment.

51 The Home Front Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Bombing was used against nonhuman military targets, against enemy troops, and against civilian populations. Bombing was used against nonhuman military targets, against enemy troops, and against civilian populations. Beginning in early Sept. 1940, the German Luftwaffe subjected London and other British cities and towns to nightly air raids, making the Blitz a national experience. Beginning in early Sept. 1940, the German Luftwaffe subjected London and other British cities and towns to nightly air raids, making the Blitz a national experience. On Nov. 14, 1940, the Luftwaffe destroyed hundreds of shops and 100 acres of the city center of Coventry. On Nov. 14, 1940, the Luftwaffe destroyed hundreds of shops and 100 acres of the city center of Coventry. Churchill and his advisers believed that destroying German communities would break civilian morale and bring victory. Churchill and his advisers believed that destroying German communities would break civilian morale and bring victory.

52 The Home Front Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Major bombing raids began in 1942 under the direction of Arthur Harris. Major bombing raids began in 1942 under the direction of Arthur Harris. On May 31, 1942, Cologne became the first German city to be subjected to an attack by 1,000 bombers. On May 31, 1942, Cologne became the first German city to be subjected to an attack by 1,000 bombers. American planes flew daytime missions aimed at the precision bombing of transportation facilities and war industries, while the British Bomber Command continued nighttime bombing of all German cities with populations over 100,000. American planes flew daytime missions aimed at the precision bombing of transportation facilities and war industries, while the British Bomber Command continued nighttime bombing of all German cities with populations over 100,000. These bombings created firestorms that swept destructive paths through cities. These bombings created firestorms that swept destructive paths through cities.

53 The Home Front Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities 4 raids on Hamburg in Aug. 1943, obliterated half the city’s buildings, and killed 50,000 civilians. 4 raids on Hamburg in Aug. 1943, obliterated half the city’s buildings, and killed 50,000 civilians. The bombing of Dresden from Feb. 13 to 15, 1945, created a firestorm that may have killed as many as 100,000 inhabitants and refugees. The bombing of Dresden from Feb. 13 to 15, 1945, created a firestorm that may have killed as many as 100,000 inhabitants and refugees. The Allied Strategic Bombing Survey showed that the production of war materiel actually increased between 1942 and Allied raids only cut production by 7%. The Allied Strategic Bombing Survey showed that the production of war materiel actually increased between 1942 and Allied raids only cut production by 7%. Fearful of German attempts to make a superbomb through the use of Uranium, pushed the U.S. to create the atomic bomb. Fearful of German attempts to make a superbomb through the use of Uranium, pushed the U.S. to create the atomic bomb.

54 The Home Front Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities Under direction of Oppenheimer in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Allied scientist built and tested the first atomic bomb by the summer of Under direction of Oppenheimer in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Allied scientist built and tested the first atomic bomb by the summer of President Truman and his advisers feared that Japanese fanaticism might mean a million American casualties. President Truman and his advisers feared that Japanese fanaticism might mean a million American casualties. This led them to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima (Aug. 6) and Nagasaki (Aug. 9). 70,000 buildings in Hiroshima were flattened. 140,000 inhabitants died by the end of By the end of 1950, another 50,000 died from radiation. This led them to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima (Aug. 6) and Nagasaki (Aug. 9). 70,000 buildings in Hiroshima were flattened. 140,000 inhabitants died by the end of By the end of 1950, another 50,000 died from radiation.

55 Aftermath of the War: Cold War The Cold War stemmed from military, political, and ideological differences, especially between the Soviet Union and the United States. The Cold War stemmed from military, political, and ideological differences, especially between the Soviet Union and the United States. The Conference at Tehran The Conference at Tehran Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill, the leaders of the Big Three of the Grand Alliances, met at Tehran in Nov to decide that future course of the war. Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill, the leaders of the Big Three of the Grand Alliances, met at Tehran in Nov to decide that future course of the war. Churchill had wanted British and American forces to follow up their North African and Italian campaigns by an indirect attack on Germany through the Balkans. Churchill had wanted British and American forces to follow up their North African and Italian campaigns by an indirect attack on Germany through the Balkans.

56 Aftermath of the War: Cold War The Conference at Tehran The Conference at Tehran Stalin and Roosevelt overruled Churchill and argued successfully for an American-British invasion of the continent through France. Stalin and Roosevelt overruled Churchill and argued successfully for an American-British invasion of the continent through France. The acceptance of this plan meant that Soviet and British- American forces would meet in defeated Germany along a north-south dividing line and that eastern Europe would be liberated by Soviet forces. The acceptance of this plan meant that Soviet and British- American forces would meet in defeated Germany along a north-south dividing line and that eastern Europe would be liberated by Soviet forces. The Yalta Conference The Yalta Conference Stalin was deeply suspicious of the Western powers and desired a buffer to protect the Soviet Union from possible future Western aggression. Stalin was deeply suspicious of the Western powers and desired a buffer to protect the Soviet Union from possible future Western aggression.

57 Aftermath of the War: Cold War The Yalta Conference The Yalta Conference Roosevelt was moving away from the notion of spheres of influence to the ideal of self-determination. Roosevelt was moving away from the notion of spheres of influence to the ideal of self-determination. The Grand Alliance approved the “Declaration on Liberated Europe.” The Grand Alliance approved the “Declaration on Liberated Europe.” Roosevelt sought Soviet military help against Japan. Roosevelt sought Soviet military help against Japan. Roosevelt agreed to Stalin’s price: possession of Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands as well as 2 warm-water ports and railroad rights in Manchuria. Roosevelt agreed to Stalin’s price: possession of Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands as well as 2 warm-water ports and railroad rights in Manchuria. Both Churchill and Stalin accepted Roosevelt’s plan for a United Nations organization. Both Churchill and Stalin accepted Roosevelt’s plan for a United Nations organization.

58 Aftermath of the War: Cold War The Yalta Conference The Yalta Conference The Big Three reaffirmed that Germany must surrender unconditionally and created four occupation zones. The Big Three reaffirmed that Germany must surrender unconditionally and created four occupation zones. The French were given a zone carved out of the British and American zones. The French were given a zone carved out of the British and American zones. German reparations were set at $20 billion. German reparations were set at $20 billion. A provisional government would be established with members of both Lublin Poles and the London Poles in Poland. A provisional government would be established with members of both Lublin Poles and the London Poles in Poland. Stalin agreed to free elections in the future to determine a new government. Stalin agreed to free elections in the future to determine a new government.

59 The Division of Germany

60 Aftermath of the War: Cold War Intensifying Differences Intensifying Differences The Allied Powers’ only common aim was the defeat of Nazism. The Allied Powers’ only common aim was the defeat of Nazism. From the perspective of the Soviets, the United States’ termination of Lend-Lease air before the war was over and its failure to respond to the Soviet request for a $6 billion loan for reconstructive exposed Western desire to keep the Soviet state weak. From the perspective of the Soviets, the United States’ termination of Lend-Lease air before the war was over and its failure to respond to the Soviet request for a $6 billion loan for reconstructive exposed Western desire to keep the Soviet state weak. On the American side, the Soviet Union’s failure to fulfill its Yalta pledge on the “Declaration on Liberated Europe” as applied to eastern Europe set a dangerous precedent. On the American side, the Soviet Union’s failure to fulfill its Yalta pledge on the “Declaration on Liberated Europe” as applied to eastern Europe set a dangerous precedent.

61 Aftermath of the War: Cold War Intensifying Differences Intensifying Differences The Soviets engineered a coup and installed a new government under the Communist Peter Groza in Romania. The Soviets engineered a coup and installed a new government under the Communist Peter Groza in Romania. The Soviets sabotaged the Polish settlement by arresting the London Poles and their sympathizers and placing the Lublin Poles in power. The Soviets sabotaged the Polish settlement by arresting the London Poles and their sympathizers and placing the Lublin Poles in power. The Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference During the conference, Truman received word that the atomic bomb had been successfully tested, which stiffened the resolve against the Soviets. During the conference, Truman received word that the atomic bomb had been successfully tested, which stiffened the resolve against the Soviets. Truman demanded free elections throughout eastern Europe. Truman demanded free elections throughout eastern Europe.

62 Aftermath of the War: Cold War The Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference Stalin sought absolute military security. To him, it could only be gained by the presence of Communist states in eastern Europe. Stalin sought absolute military security. To him, it could only be gained by the presence of Communist states in eastern Europe. Emergence of the Cold War Emergence of the Cold War James Byrnes proposed a 25-year disarmament of Germany, the Soviet Union rejected it. Many saw it as proof of Stalin’s plans to expand and create a Communist East German state. James Byrnes proposed a 25-year disarmament of Germany, the Soviet Union rejected it. Many saw it as proof of Stalin’s plans to expand and create a Communist East German state. The foreshadowing of an independent West Germany seemed to be a direct threat to the Soviet security in Europe. The foreshadowing of an independent West Germany seemed to be a direct threat to the Soviet security in Europe. Churchill declared that “an iron curtain” had “descended across the continent,” dividing Germany and Europe into 2 hostile camps. Churchill declared that “an iron curtain” had “descended across the continent,” dividing Germany and Europe into 2 hostile camps. Stalin branded Churchill’s speech a “call to war with the Soviet Union.” Stalin branded Churchill’s speech a “call to war with the Soviet Union.”


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