Presentation on theme: "V. The Second World War A.War of Movement 1.Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” Mechanized military -Airplanes, tanks, trucks."— Presentation transcript:
V. The Second World War A.War of Movement 1.Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” Mechanized military -Airplanes, tanks, trucks
V. The Second World War 2.Naval War The U.S. and Japan developed aircraft carriers Could launch planes to attack targets hundreds of miles away
V. The Second World War 3. Total War The entire economy mobilized to support the war effort Economies became tools of warfare Civilians became targets
V. The Second World War B. War in Europe & North Africa 1.Poland Germany invaded Poland in 1939 Overwhelming combination of air attack, and fast moving armored strikes Poland conquered within a month
V. The Second World War 2. Phony War Allies decided not to attack Germany Felt secure behind a defensive barrier on border with Germany, Maginot Line -“phony war”
V. The Second World War 3. Western Europe Falls Germany attacked Denmark and Norway in 1940 -fell with little resistance Invaded Belgium and the Netherlands on their way to France -avoiding the Maginot Line German forces overwhelmed the French France captured within a month Germans set up a loyal government in Southern France -Vichy France
V. The Second World War 4. The Battle of Britain Germans turned attention to Britain German air force, Luftwaffe, began a bombing campaign to prepare for invasion -“The Blitz” Thousands of civilians died in the raids British air force (RAF) aided by radar -Able to inflict heavy losses on Luftwaffe By late 1940, bombing stopped and invasion was called off
V. The Second World War 5. Invasion of Russia Hitler violated nonaggression pact, June 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union Largest attack in history -3 million soldiers Made rapid advances in summer and fall of 1941 Advance came to halt in brutal Russian winter
V. The Second World War 6. Stalingrad The turning point of the war in the Soviet Union was the battle of Stalingrad The Germans repeatedly failed to capture the city. -200,000 German soldiers surrender, Feb.1943 After German defeat at Stalingrad, the Soviets slowly pushed the German army out of the Soviet Union.
V. The Second World War 7. North Africa Mussolini dreamed of Mediterranean Empire -Ancient Rome The British needed to control the Mediterranean to maintain oil supplies from the Middle East Italian and German forces fought the British over control of North Africa Pushed British out of Libya & into Egypt -Led by General Erwin Rommel The British defeated the Germans at the Battle of El Alamein (Nov. 1942) Turning point of the war in North Africa Germans fled Africa in May 1943
V. The Second World War C. War in the Pacific 1.Japanese Expansion Japan saw war in Europe an opportunity to increase territory -Occupied Indochina (Vietnam) in July 1941 U.S. & Britain responded by ending shipments of steel to Japan
V. The Second World War 2. Japanese Options Accept shame and give up conquests Economic ruin War with U.S.
V. The Second World War 3. Attack on Pearl Harbor Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor HI, Dec 7, 1941 -Home of the American Pacific Fleet Japanese war planes launched from aircraft carriers -Attacked fleet with torpedoes and bombs All 8 battleships damaged -4 sunk American aircraft carriers at sea, avoided attack U.S. declared War on Japan -Germany Italy declare war on U.S.
V. The Second World War 4. Japanese Aggression Conquered all of South East Asia, Dutch East Indies & Philippines Treated conquered people brutally Confiscated food and raw materials to support war effort
V. The Second World War 5. Tide of War Turns American bombers attack Tokyo April, 1942 American victory at Battle of Coral Sea -Ends Japanese plan to conquer Australia Battle of Midway -Japan loses 4 of 6 aircraft carriers -Turning point of war in Pacific
V. The Second World War D. The End of the War 1.Industrial Advantage Allies had greater industrial capacity than Axis Powers Better able to replace losses
V. The Second World War 2. Allied Invasion of Italy From N. Africa, Allied troops invaded Sicily (7/1943) Italians overthrew Mussolini, Italians surrendered (9/1943) German forces continued to fight Allied troops captured Rome (June 4, 1944)
V. The Second World War 3. Allied Invasion of France D-Day- June 6, 1944 156,000 Allied soldiers landed on the beaches of Normandy in Northern France -Involved land, sea and air forces faced heavy German resistance
V. The Second World War 4. Victory in Europe Soviet troops pushed into Germany from East Allied troops pushed into Germany from West Hitler commits suicide April 30 th, 1945 Germany surrenders May, 7 1945
American & Soviet troops meet at the Elbe River
V. The Second World War 4. Island Hopping U.S. forces moved from island moving closer to Japan Amphibious invasions characterized by heavy casualties
V. The Second World War 5. Winning the War in the Pacific Allied commanders hoped to force Japan to surrender Naval blockade of Japan Heavy bombing raids Gen. Curtis Lemay led a air raid over Tokyo -Fire bombing killed 84,000 & destroyed 270,000 buildings
V. The Second World War 6. The Atomic Bomb Hiroshima -Aug 6, 1945 -80,000 killed instantly -120,000 killed from burns and radiation -2/3 of cities buildings destroyed -Japanese leaders took no action to end war Nagasaki -Aug 9, 1945 -Americans decided to drop a second bomb on the city of Nagasaki -40,000 killed
V. The Second World War 7. Victory in Japan Aug. 15, 1945 Emperor Hirohito announced surrender over the radio -First time the Japanese people had ever heard his voice
Read The Decision to Use the Bomb, pg 849 Do you think that the use of atomic weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was justified? Write a letter to the editor of the New York Times explaining your position
Work with a partner to answer the following question: Why were Communist forces able to defeat the Guomingdang in the Chinese Civil War?
Why did World War II cause so many casualties? Find examples to support your answer.