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Major Battles of World War II. Invasion of Poland background In 1939, Adolf Hitler was looking to further expand Germany’s borders. He had already taken.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Battles of World War II. Invasion of Poland background In 1939, Adolf Hitler was looking to further expand Germany’s borders. He had already taken."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Battles of World War II

2 Invasion of Poland background In 1939, Adolf Hitler was looking to further expand Germany’s borders. He had already taken Austria and the Sudetenland without a fight. Next, he set his sights on Poland.

3 "The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler, is the tragedy of the silent millions who have been `won over' to Hitlerism by the `everlasting use' of ruthless force."

4 Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23, 1939 Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23, 1939 August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union sign a Nonaggression Pact August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union sign a Nonaggression Pact They also secretly agree to divide Poland.

5 September 1 st, 1939 – Germany invades Poland September 1 st, 1939 – Germany invades Poland World War II begins In response, Britain and France declare war on Germany The German blitzkrieg easily overwhelms Polish defenses.

6 German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. September 1939 German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. September 1939

7 The Fall of France May - June 1940 After taking Poland, Hitler looks West. April 1940: Nazis invade Denmark and Norway April 1940: Nazis invade Denmark and Norway May 10, 1940: Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands May 10, 1940: Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands

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9 The Maginot Line

10 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_fall_france_campaign.shtml Fall of France battle animation

11 British POWs at Dunkirk

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13 Only Britain is left to oppose Hitler in Europe. Only Britain is left to oppose Hitler in Europe. France surrenders.

14 Battle of Britain August - October 1940 The German Luftwaffe attacks British air fields, towns, and cities. The German Luftwaffe attacks British air fields, towns, and cities. The British Royal Air Force (RAF) takes to the skies to defend the British homeland.

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16 London 1940

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19 The RAF saves the day. Use of RADAR helps Britain head off Nazi bombing raids. British pilots show their skills. The Luftwaffe cannot control the skies over Britain. Hitler abandons plans to invade. Use of RADAR helps Britain head off Nazi bombing raids. British pilots show their skills. The Luftwaffe cannot control the skies over Britain. Hitler abandons plans to invade.

20 War in the Pacific While Hitler is running amok in Europe, Japan is grabbing territory in Asia and the Pacific. While Hitler is running amok in Europe, Japan is grabbing territory in Asia and the Pacific.

21 In 1940, Japan signs a pact with Germany and Italy, forming the Axis Powers. After the Fall of France, Japan moves into French Indochina. The United States condemns Japans actions, and declares an oil embargo. Japan thinks war with the U.S. is inevitable. In 1940, Japan signs a pact with Germany and Italy, forming the Axis Powers. After the Fall of France, Japan moves into French Indochina. The United States condemns Japans actions, and declares an oil embargo. Japan thinks war with the U.S. is inevitable.

22 Captured Japanese photograph taken aboard a Japanese carrier before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. December 7, 1941 Hoping to neutralize the U.S. in the Pacific, Japan plans an attack on the Navy’s Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

23 On December 7, 1941, Japan launches the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.

24 USS Shaw USS Arizona 5 battleships sunk, 2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged 1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged 3 battleships damaged, 3 cruisers damaged 5 battleships sunk, 2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged 1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged 3 battleships damaged, 3 cruisers damaged 188 aircraft destroyed, 155 aircraft damaged, 2,345 military and 57 civilians killed, 1,247 military and 35 civilians wounded 188 aircraft destroyed, 155 aircraft damaged, 2,345 military and 57 civilians killed, 1,247 military and 35 civilians wounded

25 President Roosevelt signs declaration of war against Japan President Roosevelt signs declaration of war against Japan The U.S. declares war on Japan, officially entering World War II.

26 http://plasma.nationalgeographic.com/pearlharbor/ax/frameset.ht ml Pearl Harbor attack map

27 Battle of Midway June 4 th – 7 th, 1942 Japanese Navy wants to take Midway Island, tries to lure U.S. Navy into trap.Japanese Navy wants to take Midway Island, tries to lure U.S. Navy into trap. BUT…U.S. had broken Japanese secret code.BUT…U.S. had broken Japanese secret code. Admiral Chester Nimitz sends all available carriers to the area.Admiral Chester Nimitz sends all available carriers to the area.

28 U.S. Naval forces and planes sink four Japanese aircraft carriers. Japanese Navy is crippled. Pacific war turns in America’s favor. Japan goes on the defensive. U.S. Naval forces and planes sink four Japanese aircraft carriers. Japanese Navy is crippled. Pacific war turns in America’s favor. Japan goes on the defensive.

29 Diorama by Norman Bel Geddes, depicting the attack by USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) dive bombers on the Japanese aircraft carriers Soryu, Akagi and Kaga in the morning of 4 June 1942.

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31 Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945 From the beginning of the war, the German and British navies battle it out in the Atlantic. One of the German goals is to cut off supplies from North America. In March 1941, U.S. Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act, loaning Britain $7 billion in weapons and supplies. In order to cut off this aid, German U-boats sink Allied cargo ships. From the beginning of the war, the German and British navies battle it out in the Atlantic. One of the German goals is to cut off supplies from North America. In March 1941, U.S. Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act, loaning Britain $7 billion in weapons and supplies. In order to cut off this aid, German U-boats sink Allied cargo ships.

32 The Allies organize ships into convoys, protected by British and Canadian navy ships and planes. With the Lend-Lease Act, the U.S. also begins escorting ships as far as Iceland. In September 1941, a German U-boat fires on a U.S. destroyer. FDR tells U.S. forces to shoot threatening U- boats on sight.

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34 The Germans and the Allies battle at sea until the end of the war in 1945. The British use SONAR to detect German U-boats. German U-boats are unable to cut off supply lines. Allied victory remains possible. The Germans and the Allies battle at sea until the end of the war in 1945. The British use SONAR to detect German U-boats. German U-boats are unable to cut off supply lines. Allied victory remains possible.

35 Back in Europe…

36 Operation Barbarossa In June 1941 (6 months before Pearl Harbor), Hitler betrays Stalin. Nazi forces begin Operation Barbarossa – an invasion of Soviet Union. Their aim is to take Moscow. Largest military operation in History. 900,000 German and 3,000,000 Russian casualties. In June 1941 (6 months before Pearl Harbor), Hitler betrays Stalin. Nazi forces begin Operation Barbarossa – an invasion of Soviet Union. Their aim is to take Moscow. Largest military operation in History. 900,000 German and 3,000,000 Russian casualties.

37 Even though the Soviets sustain greater losses, the operation is a failure for the Germans. The Nazi Army regroups, goes after Stalingrad. The Battle of Stalingrad will become the bloodiest in history, with over 1,500,000 casualties. 750,000 Germans killed or wounded, 91,000 captured. 478,000 Russians killed or missing, 650,000 sick and wounded. Over 40,000 civilian deaths. Even though the Soviets sustain greater losses, the operation is a failure for the Germans. The Nazi Army regroups, goes after Stalingrad. The Battle of Stalingrad will become the bloodiest in history, with over 1,500,000 casualties. 750,000 Germans killed or wounded, 91,000 captured. 478,000 Russians killed or missing, 650,000 sick and wounded. Over 40,000 civilian deaths.

38 Battle of Stalingrad July 1942 – February 1943 The Nazis want Soviet oil fields. Controlling Stalingrad will give them access. Neither army will retreat or surrender. September – German and Romanian forces surround Stalingrad. July 1942 – February 1943 The Nazis want Soviet oil fields. Controlling Stalingrad will give them access. Neither army will retreat or surrender. September – German and Romanian forces surround Stalingrad.

39 German Luftwaffe attacks on Stalingrad Summer 1942 German Luftwaffe attacks on Stalingrad Summer 1942

40 November – January Red Army counterattacks, defeats the Romanian forces, pushes the Nazi Army away from the city. German commander Friedrich Von Paulus sees hope is lost. His force of 300,000 is down to 91,000 starving, freezing men. But Hitler won’t let him surrender. He surrenders anyway. November – January Red Army counterattacks, defeats the Romanian forces, pushes the Nazi Army away from the city. German commander Friedrich Von Paulus sees hope is lost. His force of 300,000 is down to 91,000 starving, freezing men. But Hitler won’t let him surrender. He surrenders anyway.

41 German POWs in Stalingrad February 1943 German POWs in Stalingrad February 1943

42 Stalingrad, 1943

43 Russia stops the blitz. Crushing defeat for the Germans ends their advances in Eastern Europe. The tide in Europe begins to turn in the Allies’ favor. Russia stops the blitz. Crushing defeat for the Germans ends their advances in Eastern Europe. The tide in Europe begins to turn in the Allies’ favor.

44 War in Africa 1940 - 1943 British Commonwealth forces fight back and forth with Italian and German forces in North Africa and the Mediterranean Both sides want to control the Suez Canal British Commonwealth forces fight back and forth with Italian and German forces in North Africa and the Mediterranean Both sides want to control the Suez Canal

45 The Battle of El Alamein Their forces meet at El Alamein, near Alexandria, Egypt. Montgomery uses superior numbers to overwhelm German forces. Rommel convinces Hitler that he has to withdraw; begins 1,400 mile retreat across North Africa. Their forces meet at El Alamein, near Alexandria, Egypt. Montgomery uses superior numbers to overwhelm German forces. Rommel convinces Hitler that he has to withdraw; begins 1,400 mile retreat across North Africa. October 23 – November 5, 1942 British General Bernard Montgomery British General Bernard Montgomery German General Erwin Rommel German General Erwin Rommel

46 Australian soldiers at El Alamein

47 Soon after the battle, U.S. forces under Generals George S. Patton and Dwight D. Eisenhower land in Africa. End of Axis threat in Africa. Allies can focus on Mediterranean Soon after the battle, U.S. forces under Generals George S. Patton and Dwight D. Eisenhower land in Africa. End of Axis threat in Africa. Allies can focus on Mediterranean The Battle of El Alamein

48 After El Alamein (1943-1944) July-September ‘43 Allies land in Italy. Mussolini overthrown. 1944 Allied bombing of German targets in France. July-September ‘43 Allies land in Italy. Mussolini overthrown. 1944 Allied bombing of German targets in France. February ‘44 Allied bombing of Germany begins. June ‘44 Allies capture Rome. Operation Overlord February ‘44 Allied bombing of Germany begins. June ‘44 Allies capture Rome. Operation Overlord

49 General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses U.S. troops prior to the Invasion of Normandy.

50 Operation Overlord Allies cross the English Channel to retake France from Germany. June 5th, 1944: paratroopers descend behind German lines Allies cross the English Channel to retake France from Germany. June 5th, 1944: paratroopers descend behind German lines June 6th, 1944: D-Day June 6th, 1944: D-Day

51 D-Day (Invasion of Normandy) Over 160,000 US, British, and Canadian troops and 30,000 vehicles land on the beaches of Normandy, France. Landings begin at 6:30 am. By midnight, the Allies control the beaches.

52 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_d_day.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_wwtwo_movies_dday.shtml

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54 After D-Day Allied forces and French Resistance liberate Paris in August. Liberations of France, Belgium, Luxembourg. Allied forces and French Resistance liberate Paris in August. Liberations of France, Belgium, Luxembourg. US soldiers in Belgium, December 1944

55 Battle of the Bulge December 1944 - January 1945 Hitler’s last offensive. 250,000 Nazi soldiers advance through Ardennes forest, pushing 50 miles into Allied lines.

56 Three members of an American patrol cross a snow- covered Luxembourg field on a scouting mission. White bedsheets camouflage them in the snow.

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58 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bulge/sfeature/sf_footage_01.html Description of battle http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bulge/sfeature/sf_footage_04.html McAuliffe’s surrender message

59 Battle of the Bulge December 1944 - January 1945 Over 76,000 Americans are killed, wounded, or captured, mostly in the first three days of battle. UK forces under Montgomery attack the ‘bulge’ from the north, US forces under Patton attack from the south. German forces - cold, frustrated, and low on fuel and ammunition - withdraw. The end is near for Nazi Germany. Over 76,000 Americans are killed, wounded, or captured, mostly in the first three days of battle. UK forces under Montgomery attack the ‘bulge’ from the north, US forces under Patton attack from the south. German forces - cold, frustrated, and low on fuel and ammunition - withdraw. The end is near for Nazi Germany.


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