2Invasion of Poland background In 1939, Adolf Hitler was looking to further expand Germany’s borders.He had already taken Austria and the Sudetenland without a fight.Next, he set his sights on Poland.
3"The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler, is the tragedy of the silent millions who have been `won over' to Hitlerism by the `everlasting use' of ruthless force."
4Soviet Union sign a Nonaggression Pact August 1939Germany and theSoviet Union sign a Nonaggression PactThey also secretly agree to divide Poland.Soviet Foreign Commissar VyacheslavMolotov signs the Nazi-Soviet nonaggressionpact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and JosefStalin stand behind him.Moscow, August 23, 1939
5Germany invades Poland September 1st, 1939 –Germany invades PolandThe German blitzkrieg easily overwhelms Polish defenses.In response, Britain and France declare war on GermanyWorld War II begins
6German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. September 1939
7The Fall of France May - June 1940 After taking Poland, Hitler looks West.April 1940:Nazis invade Denmark and NorwayMay 10, 1940:Nazis invade France, Belgium,Luxembourg,and the Netherlands
19The RAF saves the day. Hitler abandons plans to invade. Use of RADAR helps Britain head off Nazi bombing raids.British pilots show their skills.The Luftwaffe cannot control the skies over Britain.Hitler abandons plans to invade.
20War in the Pacific While Hitler is running amok in Europe, Japan is grabbing territory in Asia and the Pacific.
21After the Fall of France, Japan moves into French Indochina. In 1940, Japan signs a pact with Germany and Italy, forming the Axis Powers.After the Fall of France, Japan moves into French Indochina.The United States condemns Japans actions, and declares an oil embargo.Japan thinks war with the U.S. is inevitable.
22Hoping to neutralize the U. S Hoping to neutralize the U.S. in the Pacific, Japan plans an attack on the Navy’s Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.Captured Japanese photograph taken aboard a Japanese carrier before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. December 7, 1941
23On December 7, 1941, Japan launches the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.
24USS Shaw USS Arizona 188 aircraft destroyed, 5 battleships sunk, 155 aircraft damaged,2,345 military and 57civilians killed,1,247 military and 35civilians wounded5 battleships sunk,2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged3 battleships damaged,3 cruisers damagedUSS Shaw USS Arizona
25The U.S. declares war on Japan, officially entering World War II. President Roosevelt signsdeclaration of war against Japan
27Battle of Midway June 4th – 7th, 1942 Japanese Navy wants to take Midway Island, tries to lure U.S. Navy into trap.BUT…U.S. had broken Japanese secret code.Admiral Chester Nimitz sends all available carriers to the area.
28U.S. Naval forces and planes sink four Japanese aircraft carriers. Japanese Navy is crippled.Pacific war turns in America’s favor.Japan goes on the defensive.
29Diorama by Norman Bel Geddes, depicting the attack by USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) dive bombers on the Japanese aircraft carriers Soryu, Akagi and Kaga in the morning of 4 June 1942.
31Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945 From the beginning of the war, the German and British navies battle it out in the Atlantic.One of the German goals is to cut off supplies from North America.In March 1941, U.S. Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act, loaning Britain $7 billion in weapons and supplies.In order to cut off this aid, German U-boats sink Allied cargo ships.
32In September 1941, a German U-boat fires on a U.S. destroyer. The Allies organize ships into convoys, protected by British and Canadian navy ships and planes.With the Lend-Lease Act, the U.S. also begins escorting ships as far as Iceland.In September 1941, a German U-boat fires on a U.S. destroyer.FDR tells U.S. forces to shoot threatening U-boats on sight.
34Allied victory remains possible. The Germans and the Allies battle at sea until the end of the war in 1945.The British use SONAR to detect German U-boats.German U-boats are unable to cut off supply lines.Allied victory remains possible.
36Operation BarbarossaIn June 1941 (6 months before Pearl Harbor), Hitler betrays Stalin.Nazi forces begin Operation Barbarossa – an invasion of Soviet Union. Their aim is to take Moscow.Largest military operation in History. 900,000 German and 3,000,000 Russian casualties.
37Even though the Soviets sustain greater losses, the operation is a failure for the Germans. The Nazi Army regroups, goes after Stalingrad.The Battle of Stalingrad will become the bloodiest in history, with over 1,500,000 casualties.750,000 Germans killed or wounded, 91,000 captured.478,000 Russians killed or missing, 650,000 sick and wounded. Over 40,000 civilian deaths.
38Battle of Stalingrad July 1942 – February 1943 The Nazis want Soviet oil fields. Controlling Stalingrad will give them access.Neither army will retreat or surrender.September – German and Romanian forces surround Stalingrad.
39German Luftwaffe attacks on StalingradSummer 1942
40November – JanuaryRed Army counterattacks, defeats the Romanian forces, pushes the Nazi Army away from the city.German commander Friedrich Von Paulus sees hope is lost. His force of 300,000 is down to 91,000 starving, freezing men. But Hitler won’t let him surrender.He surrenders anyway.
43Russia stops the blitz.Crushing defeat for the Germans ends their advances in Eastern Europe.The tide in Europe begins to turn in the Allies’ favor.
44War in AfricaBritish Commonwealth forces fight back and forth with Italian and German forces in North Africaand theMediterraneanBoth sides want to control the Suez Canal
45The Battle of El Alamein October 23 – November 5, 1942British GeneralBernard MontgomeryGerman GeneralErwin RommelTheir forces meet at El Alamein, near Alexandria, Egypt.Montgomery uses superior numbers to overwhelm German forces.Rommel convinces Hitler that he has to withdraw; begins 1,400 mile retreat across North Africa.
47The Battle of El Alamein Soon after the battle, U.S. forces under Generals George S. Patton and Dwight D. Eisenhower land in Africa.End of Axis threat in Africa.Allies can focus on Mediterranean
48After El Alamein (1943-1944) Operation Overlord February ‘44 Allied bombing of Germany begins.June ‘44Allies capture Rome.Operation OverlordJuly-September ‘43Allies land in Italy.Mussolini overthrown.1944Allied bombing of German targets in France.
49General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses U. S General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses U.S. troops prior to the Invasion of Normandy.49
50D-Day Operation Overlord Allies cross the English Channel to retake France from Germany.June 5th, 1944:paratroopers descend behind German linesJune 6th, 1944:D-Day
51D-Day (Invasion of Normandy) Over 160,000 US, British, and Canadian troops and 30,000 vehicles land on the beaches of Normandy, France.Landings begin at 6:30 am.By midnight, the Allies control the beaches.51
58Description of battleMcAuliffe’s surrender message
59Battle of the Bulge December 1944 - January 1945 Over 76,000 Americans are killed, wounded, or captured, mostly in the first three days of battle.UK forces under Montgomery attack the ‘bulge’ from the north, US forces under Patton attack from the south.German forces - cold, frustrated, and low on fuel and ammunition - withdraw.The end is near for Nazi Germany.