4 Introduction Gastronomy is the study between food and culture. There are numerous areas considered including culture, location, the human body and religion.For many food and gastronomy is a way of life regardless if it is a simple family roast or a twelve course taster menu in a three Michelin starred restaurant.
5 Cont………………………………In this modern day full of technological advances geography is no longer a barrier to the consumer or chef; exotic ingredients and dishes from all over the world are now common place and they are ready available has reduced the cost.Key economic issues such as sustainability and food miles have become a focal point which many people are striving to improve.
6 Cont………………………………..Cultural and religious beliefs have played a large part in the development of gastronomy.A dinning experience from India, Asia, Africa, modern Britain or America is readily available to all and helps develop a range of exciting styles of cooking and service.Technology is one of the newest and most exciting trends with use of sous-vide, liquid nitrogen etc.Serving and entertainment possibilities are changing the way food is thought of.
7 Cont………………………………..The Health issue surrounding diners have played an enormous part in the way food is designed and cooked for consumers.The days of thick gelatinous sauces and high fat meals served regularly are gone, in their place are light low fat dishes that form part of a balanced diet.Gastronomy has become a very talked about subject with celebrity chefs, food programmes, cooking shows, competitions and kitchen alchemists unlocking the secrets of the professional kitchen and enticing a new breed of gastronome in to the mix.
9 GeographyThe term geography when used within the context of gastronomy refers to terrain, lakes, rivers, the sea, soil and climate.
10 Naturally sourced products Examples of naturally sourced products making the most of locally skilled workers include clotted cream from Devon, crabs from Cromer, Gloucester old spot pigs and Jersey Royal potatoes.By using sustainable local produce not only is there less environmental impact but there is a reduction in air miles, which offsets the carbon foot print.
11 New Food VarietiesThe increase in global temperature ascribed to climate change has enabled a variety of new species to grow which in turn has made the production of certain food increase.Examples of this are grapes, olive groves, small holding farms which produce items for local restaurants, accessible in the UK.
12 The Distribution Cycle The cycle continues to flow as each point supports the other, ensuring good value, community spirit and a sustainable, well maintained environment for future years.The local communityEnvironmentTheSmall Holding Farmers
14 Transport and Transportation The importance of reducing food miles has never been so imperative, not only is it the responsibility of everyone associated with the industry but it has become a prerequisite for the majority of diners.
15 Transport available to suppliers Air transportLorriesVans
16 Carbon Low- Neutral Transport BoatsTrainsLocally sourcedHand deliveredFarmers markets
17 Food miles website http://www.climatechoices.org.uk/pages/food3.htm Local producers and even suppliers are now offering the consumer a choice of produce with information as to food miles attached.This allows the chef/ purchaser to make an informed decision.
19 Science and Technology This can be the most exciting and worrying of all areas of gastronomy.The use of water baths etc can reduce the wastage of food and improve the flavour and texture of tougher cuts.Specialist ingredient companies have been introduced to provide natural enhancement to dishes such as carrageenan which is formed from seaweed or Gellan which is created from a bacterial fermentation.These items to name a few can be used to produce hot gels, heat stable foams and liquid centre encapsulations.
20 Food for Tomorrow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhfFFDr8cgU Group ActivityIn small groups, create an innovative 3 course menu using modern cooking and serving techniques.
21 Food Chemistry Food science is much talked about subject. Understanding how proteins and then form a mesh when eggs are cooked allows chefs to produce new dishes.The creation of soft poached quails egg using controlled water temperatures, liquid nitrogen and a stop watch has changed how chefs look at food and the boundaries by which they were restricted.
22 Cont………………………………..The improvement in the knowledge of science has, however, brought about some un natural occurrences such as shorter ripening times, less fat in livestock, GM foods, intensive farming and increased shelf life.These advancements may have a future detrimental effect on the well being of the human race and the way the grow and harvest their crops.There is, however a drive among many to grow organic food and nurture the land to reap future harvests.
24 Considerations when choosing suppliers It can be a very challenging and lengthy process when trying to find out a suitable supplier to provide produceOnce a solid relationship has been established it is vital to the successful running of the kitchenMost chefs will source their products from a wholesalerSpecialist products sourced via word of mouth from other suppliers
25 Cont………………………………A good reputation can surpass a good supplier and the latter is invaluable in obtaining your required produce.
26 Buying MethodsInformal buying – an agreement between supplier and purchaser which is verbal.Formal buying- which means that a written agreement will be put in to place and is usually undertaken by means of a computerised system.When considering which supplier to employ you should take the following factors in to consideration; Quality, Quantity, Variety, Cost, Reliability
27 Quality Sample products before you buy. With large wholesalers you may need to sign a contract agreeing to purchase their goods for a minimum period of time or a minimum delivery cost.You should always establish work principals and delivery times with the supplier.Food produce must always be fresh, labelled clearly, properly contained and stored in accordance with health and safety regulations.The supplier should also be aware of product origins and have relevant paperwork
28 QuantityWith small suppliers, you will need to establish the volume of goods that they regularly have availableIf this is not determined first you run the risk of not having enough stock when specifically required.With equipment items you run the risk of a suppler not being able to replace goods within a reasonable timescale, if they do not have a good stock.
29 VarietyA good variety of produce should be made available by your supplier, for dairy, fish, meat, vegetables and fruit.You may need separate suppliers for each.As technology advancing rapidly, all supplier should have a wide variety of equipment available and be aware of new products that maybe of interest.For any specialist supplier, they should have a good supply of general products as well as specialist items.
30 CostSupplier cost should be calculated carefully prior to instruction/ agreement.Check that carriage charges and VAT is included in the final price.Minimum order penaltiesOr any other hidden additional costs
31 ReliabilityAny supplier used must be reliable If your product is not delivered on time at the correct standard the kitchen will not be able to run smoothly.Fresh products should be at the highest qualityA professional supplier relies on good feedback and word of mouth to improve and maintain their business.When supplying electrical goods, check for aftercare policies.
32 Cont………………………………..Regular suppliers for non specialist item should always negotiate prices, especially with large orders.Organise special rates for common items or large quantities, you will both benefit through saving money and cost efficiencyAlways give the supplier order requests as soon as practicable so that they have enough time to source produce.By communicating with supplier you can be kept up to date with special offers, specialist goods or any other matters such as when a member of staff is absent who would the next point of contact would be.
33 Group Activity Research local suppliers for your innovative menu Look at three main areas; wholesale, supermarket and local suppliers.Compare the following factors; price, availability, delivery and any additional hidden factors.
34 Topic 6Factors that make a good Dining Experience
35 Dining Out !!When dining out there are many factors that influence our enjoyment.These vary from the delivery and presentation of food and our perception of value for money.
36 Key points -Good Dining Experience Factors that make a good dinning experienceSettingStyleFood and Current TrendsStaff Capabilities and ExecutionValue for moneyAmbience
37 Cont………………………………… Not all restaurants operate in the same format. A Michelin 3 star restaurants standards will be considerably higher and different those of a canteen operation.The key to an enjoyable experience is to adjust expectations to match the environment that the customer is in.A customer has the right to expect good customer care involving attentiveness, attention to detail, value for money and staff friendlinessOther factors such as style and ambience are not always in place, such as deco and soft furnishings but have friendly hard working staff.
39 Group ActivityList the types of food that can be found on the different meal type occasions;BreakfastLunchAfternoon TeaDinner
40 Topic 7Social Cultural and Religious Influences on Gastronomy
41 Social InfluencesMembers of a social group depend on each other, share a common culture and influence each others behaviours and values.A persons membership in a particular peer group, or community group impacts food behaviours.An example of this would be, a young person would eat certain foods whilst accompanied by friends and other foods when accompanied by their spouse or family members.
42 Religious InfluencesDifferent religious beliefs may vary from very relaxed to highly restrictive where gastronomy is concerned.This will affect the followers food choices and behaviours.For example, in some religions specific foods are prohibited, such as pork among the Jewish and Muslim faiths.Alcohol is also banned in some religions, therefore a menu descriptive needs to correct.
43 Cultural InfluencesEach culture has its own speciality foods and preparation methods.Britain, France, China, Japan, Mexico, Pan Asia, Italy and India are just some examples of cultural areas known for their gastronomy.Within each culture there is an etiquette that is followed when eating and drinking.This will vary depending on the country, background and cultural ties of each person.
44 Media and Individuals influence The use of media to promote gastronomy over last few years has been immense.Celebrity chefs cooking on television, competitions, back to basic cooking, and government campaigns encouraging healthy eating has increased intense interest in this area.There has been a huge advancement in high level catering colleges offering bespoke courses and specialist skills, providing ‘the experience’ in to the trade that customers expect and deserve.
45 Group Debate Split in to two groups Group 1 – for the debate topic (Butchers)Group 2- against the debate topic (Vegetarians )ScenarioA local butcher has decided to sell horse meat burgers in his shop, the local vegetarian society has found out about this and are out raged by his decision.Research appropriate and valid points to be discussed for and against the decision.
47 Types of ExperiencesThe dining experience will always depend upon the venue selected.This should not, however, detract from the positive feelings a guest should leave with such as;SatisfactionValue for MoneyAttentivenessWelcomeThese factors should remain constant and ensure the guest returns again
48 Areas of Exposure that a customer could expect within the gastronomic world Fine diningPub RestaurantTraditional PubBistroBrassiereChainsThemed restaurantsEthnicFast FoodTakeawayInstitutional
49 Lifestyle ChangesThe modern day Climate has seen a move towards ready meals and fast food at one end with the media and government trying to encourage a more wholesome approach to the topic at the other.The introduction of healthy eating imitative has seen many peoples return to the kitchen to produce healthy meals for the family and increase their fruit and vegetable consumption.The price of meals offered by many top restaurants has opened the door to many who have began to find a real appreciation for quality produce, techniques and settings.The interest has led to a huge surge in the market for gastronomy and food in general.