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© CommNet 2013 Education Phase 3 Food production – farm to fork
© CommNet 2013 Objective To gain an overview of food production, from farm to fork in the European Union.
© CommNet 2013 The food and drink industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the Europe. It employs more people than any other sector. Germany, France, Italy, United Kingdom (UK) and Spain are the largest EU food and drink producers.
© CommNet 2013 The food chain from farm to fork connects three important sectors: the agricultural sector; the food and drink industry; the distribution sector.
© CommNet 2013 Farm to fork The food chain usually starts within the agricultural sector, e.g. a farm. Most food is processed within the manufacturing sector. It is then distributed through wholesale and transport systems. Consumers buy food and drink in shops and cafes.
© CommNet 2013 Along the food chain 1.Agriculture Europe has a Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). It was introduced to help ensure: a fair standard of living for agricultural workers; stable markets; a food supply at affordable prices to consumers. Since its implementation, the CAP has caused food surpluses to build up and there were environmental concerns about the methods being used.
© CommNet 2013 Changes were made to the CAP to try and make sure that: food was produced to meet the needs of the market, therefore less was wasted; it was more environmentally friendly and a more sustainable form of agriculture; the development of rural areas throughout the EU was balanced. The CAP is continually being reformed to try and make sure it is fair for all farmers and producers.
© CommNet 2013 Types of farming in the EU Source: Eurostat 2013
© CommNet 2013 Agricultural production The main products in the EU food chain are split between: crops e.g. cereals and vegetables; animals e.g. cattle, sheep, pigs; animal products e.g. milk, meat.
© CommNet 2013 Agricultural production The production of agricultural and food products depends on: climate and geological conditions; the availability of land and water; the level of imports. These help to decide which type of farming is practised in each Member State.
© CommNet 2013 Almost one quarter of the EU’s production of cereals comes from France, followed by Germany and Poland. Italy and Spain are the leading producers of fresh vegetables in the EU. The Netherlands also specialises in producing fresh vegetables. Crops
© CommNet 2013 France and Germany are the largest producers of beef and veal. Germany and Spain are the biggest producers of pork. The UK and Spain are the biggest producers of lamb/sheep meat. Poultry production is widespread across most of the Member States. Source: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu (2009) Meat
© CommNet 2013 Over 70 % of the milk produced in the EU comes from: Germany; France; UK; Poland; Netherlands; Italy. Dairy
© CommNet 2013 The quantity of milk produced in the EU is controlled by a system called production quotas. Milk quotas were introduced to help control rising milk production. A milk quota is the maximum quantity of milk which a farmer may sell in a year free of a levy (tax). Milk quota There are plans to stop the milk quota system in 2015.
© CommNet 2013 Most dairy farmers (90%) sell their milk to dairy processors. The milk is treated for drinking and is made into other products such as yogurt and cheese. Other dairy farmers sell their milk directly to consumers. On a few dairy farms, milk is consumed on the farm. Image required Dairy
© CommNet 2013 Wheat is the largest cereal crop in the EU. France is the largest producer followed by Germany and the UK. The EU is one of the world's biggest cereals producers. Cereals
© CommNet 2013 Other cereals produced in the EU are: barley; maize; small amounts of rye, oats and spelt. Nearly two-thirds of the EU's cereals are used for animal feed. Cereals
© CommNet 2013 Fruit and vegetables Fruit and vegetables are widely grown in the Mediterranean Member States. Many countries produce these. Some of the main producers include: Spain; Italy; Greece; Portugal; Malta and Cyprus. It is also important in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK.
© CommNet 2013 Potatoes The EU is one of the largest producers of potatoes in the world. They are grown in all the EU Member States. Early (new) and main crop potatoes are grown for the consumer and for processing.
© CommNet 2013 Potatoes The food industry uses potatoes for different types of products: pre-cooked products (mostly French fries); dehydrated products (potato flours, flakes); snacks; other products (gnocchi, salads, ready prepared meals).
© CommNet 2013 Fish and shellfish Spain, Italy, the UK and France catch just over half of all the fish in the EU. (2010) The main type of fish landed varies a lot. This depends on what is available and partly what the consumer wants to buy. Fish farming (aquaculture) produces mainly mussels, trout, salmon and oysters.
© CommNet 2013 Manufacturing and processing The food industry is one of the largest and most important manufacturing sectors in Europe. It produces a large selection of foods. These include everyday foods e.g. flour, milk, salt and luxury items such as chocolate and wine.
© CommNet 2013 The four largest food and beverage manufacturing sectors in the EU are: bakery and flour-based products; meat and meat products; other products e.g. sugar-based products, tea and coffee, pre-prepared meals; beverages.
© CommNet 2013 Retail and consumer services One of the last steps in the food chain from farm to fork, takes place when food and beverages are sold to consumers. Meals and drinks are also provided outside of the home. This has increased greatly in many parts of the world, including much of the EU.
© CommNet 2013 One of the big changes in food and beverage retailing is convenience. Traditionally, customers shopped every day in local, specialised shops. Over the years this has changed to large supermarkets offering a wide range of products in one place.
© CommNet 2013 Education Phase 3 Food production – farm to fork
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