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Phonological Knowledge permits native speakers 1  to produce sounds that form meaningful utterances  to recognize a foreign “accent”  to invent words.

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Presentation on theme: "Phonological Knowledge permits native speakers 1  to produce sounds that form meaningful utterances  to recognize a foreign “accent”  to invent words."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phonological Knowledge permits native speakers 1  to produce sounds that form meaningful utterances  to recognize a foreign “accent”  to invent words  to add the appropriate phonetic segments to form plurals and past tenses  to produce aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops in the appropriate context Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, p. 256.

2  to know what is or is not a sound in one’s language  to know that different phonetic strings may represent the same morpheme  to know which sounds can occur at the beginning or end of a word or syllable  to know which sounds can occur next to each other within a syllable Phonological Knowledge permits native speakers 2 Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, p. 256.

3 Language-Specific Rules  Aspirated / unaspirated Rule: English YESChinese NO  Tones differentiating syllables / words; EnglishNOChineseYES  Stops at end of words being devoiced English NOGermanYES

4 Regular English Plural Data ABCD cabcapbuschild cadcat bushox bagbackbuzzmouse love cuffgaragecriterion lathe faithmatchsheep cam badge can bang call bar spa boy Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, pp

5 Analysis Procedure 1. Collect data. 2. Look for phonological patterns and the contexts (or environments) that show similarities or differences. (Any minimal pairs?) 3. Organize data according to patterns or contexts. 4. Identify the allomorphs and their associated environments. 5. Formulate a generalization or rule.

6 Environments for Regular Plurals Allomorph Environment Generalization [z]after voiced sound [s]after voiceless sound [ ǝ z]after sibilant Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, p. 257.

7 Regular Past Tense Data ABC D grabreapgloat run hugpokeraid bring fazekisshuntsee roam watch roast eat play rush be call Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, p. 259.

8 Phonemes “Phonemes are not physical sounds. They are abstract mental representations of the phonological units of a langue, the units used to represent the forms of words in our mental lexicons. The phonological rules apply to the phonemic representation to determine the pronunciation of the words.” Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 285.

9 Phoneme / Allophones pit [ p  ] spit [ p ] / p / tip [ p ¬ ] tip [ p ]

10 Chapter 7 Homework (Exercise 1, pp ) Initial Final a. / k / / g /cobgob backbag b. / m / / n /mynigh limeline c. / l / / r /laprap sealseer d. / b / / v /batvat cabcalve e. / b / / m /bitemight cubcome

11 Initial Final f. / p / / f / pig fig goopgoof g. / s / /  / seat sheet gasgash h. / t  / / d  /cheer jeer watch bridge i. / s / / z /sue zoo missMs Chapter 7 Homework (Exercise 1, pp )

12 Chapter 7 Homework (Exercise 2, p. 300) Written word  Pronunciation  Each vowel should be pronounced. (No diphthongs; No silent letters)  Silent letter e pronounced / i /  Letter a pronounced /  /

13 Oral word  Written word  Sound of vowel is written as the name of the vowel (long vowels) Chapter 7 Homework (Exercise 2, p. 300)

14 Chapter 7 Homework (Exercise 3, p. 300) a. No minimal pairs b. Yes in complementary distribution c. CONTEXT for / r / : ru, ri, ra, r , ra CONTEXT for / l / : final l, lg, ls c. Pronounce it / r / before a vowel Pronounce it / l / elsewhere (i.e., NOT before a vowel) Conclusion:We have two allophones / r / and / l / belonging to one phoneme.

15 Allomorphs of in- (not) A inexcusable inattentive intolerable indefinable innovation insurmountable B impossible imbalance immaterial Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 281.

16 C incomplete inglorious D illegal irregular Allomorphs of in- (not) Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 281.


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