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Main format of the examination paper - Eight questions – 2 hours – 40% TEXTILES - Theory paper Use this guide along with your Revision guidebook: KEY pages:

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Presentation on theme: "Main format of the examination paper - Eight questions – 2 hours – 40% TEXTILES - Theory paper Use this guide along with your Revision guidebook: KEY pages:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Main format of the examination paper - Eight questions – 2 hours – 40% TEXTILES - Theory paper Use this guide along with your Revision guidebook: KEY pages: 8-12 – types of research and specification heading and types – colour primary, secondary, monochromic,, complementary, harmonious, warm, cold, pattern and texture recycling and sustainability. 26 –27 mood boards and trend forecasting 32 – 33 types of specifications

2 Fibres and yarns 36 – 51 – is a key area that you must learn. What are fibres and yarn. Different types of fabrics - knitted, woven and bonded fabrics. Weave types. Properties of fabrics – p41 and how fabrics can be combined. Special fabrics – p43 elastane, Kevlar, microfibres. Finishes – there three types – physical, biological and chemicals – know about three different types for each type. P 44 – 47. Smart fabrics – Read p 54 – 58 about different ways of decorating fabric Pattern making – lay planning – construction techniques – – key pages to learn.. Quality control and quality assurance. - p68 Fabric testing – p67 – often there is a question on this. Regulation and standards – p68 – 69 – NB BSI and CE symbol Production planning – p key area Production plans and use of computer in textiles – p 76 – 79 Industrial clothes manufacture – 80 – 81 – important area. Labelling – p86- 87

3 Question 1 – Product analysis – 15 marks You may be given a product and asked to critically analyse it – take this opportunity to show off your technical knowledge and language. Questions will be similar to the design specification – relating points to target group, material properties, aesthetics, safety Read the question carefully and respond as fully as possible..

4 Question 1 – Product analysis – 15 marks You need to be able to write a specification Look at the aesthetics of a product Study the function of a product Quality issues relating to the product Safety issues relating to a product Consider the scale of manufacture How it is made Safety considerations when making a product

5 Write a specification for a weekend bag you may want to write about the following Size Cost Production Manufacture Aesthetics How it is made

6 Mass vs Batch Production If your product were to be sold commercially do you think it would be produced in high volume (mass production) or low volume (Batch production). Mass produced products would be made in a factory with a dedicated production line especially set up just to make your product. Mass produced products would generally be sold in huge numbers in order to reduce the production set up costs. Batch produced items would be made in significantly smaller numbers. A batch would be made in a more versatile production set up as this type of manufacturer may make different items every day. Mass -High volume production likely to be less labour intensive due to CAD/CAM use of automated machinery. Batch -Smaller volumes of production, likely to be more labour intensive.

7 Environmental issues 6 R’s Labelling - Kitemark. C E marking Children's goods and toys – Lion mark. Care labelling codes using symbols. Question 2 is about the general issues of Design and Technology. It is worth a total of 10marks.

8 Sustainability How can we achieve a sustainable future as designers and manufacturers? Use environmentally friendly materials Use materials that can be recycled or reused Use materials that do not use a lot of power to produce. Use materials that are easy to recycle

9 Why are sustainability issues and environmental issues important. Global warming due to industry and carbon emissions (polar ice caps melting, sea levels increasing changes to global weather) The planet has not got an infinite supply of materials. It is estimated that we have 30yrs of oil supplies left. Plastic is made from oil. Landfill costs us millions of pound a year and we are running out of places to put our rubbish. Designers have a duty to limit the impact of their products and prevent a negative environmental impact. Sustainability is more than using recycled or recyclable materials to manufacture their products. It is the total impact that the process of designing has on the environment. Sustainability

10 The six R’s Sustainability – You need to know these!! Rethink Reuse Recycle Repair Reduce Refuse Read information on page 22 of your revision notes for further details

11 Life cycle analysis – look at the impact of these products, what will happen to them in the future Cheap cotton clothing – huge use of chemicals, land and water. Cheap labour – 50p a day for use to wear nearly “disposable” clothes. The £2 t-shirt is “costing the earth” Clothes are now such poor quality they cannot be recycled to Africa etc where there is a big demand. Traditionally – patchwork Shoe soles (tyres) Play mats (tyres) Plastics (benches) Glass various Metal various Products made from recycled materials Sustainability

12 Social – Enjoyment that product may give and effect on quality of life. Does the product have a positive effect on life. Economic – Cost, is it value for money and commercially viable. Does it use too much non renewable resources in the production process. Environmental- How much co2 does it give off in production. Can it be re-cycled. Can it be re-used. Does the process by which it is made give off bad by-product (noise, smell, pollution). Responsibility in designing and making Designers need to think about the environmental impact of their products after they have ended their useful period. Well known designers who are “up cycling” e.g. Junkystyling, Treepeople. Will they end up in landfill, can they be recycled reused, look at the 6 R’s.

13 Question 3 is about the designers you have studied. It is worth a total of 10 marks. John Galliano Vivienne Westwood You will need to know key aspects about these designers – You need to study these two designers and understand the following aspects: (a) the range of work that they have produced over time; (b) how to identify the work of each of the Designers; (c) the innovations and/or new ideas that the two Designers have introduced over time; (d) the influence that each of the two Designers has had on the world of Design and Technology Be prepared to compare the two designers!

14 Select 20 keywords that describe or personify Vivienne Westwood flashyeccentricoriginal provocative rebellion provocativeinspiring there can be no good taste without elegance elegancerebel against tasteless casual wear provocative prints passion one of the most influential British fashion designers intellectual observation zipper, safety pins, razor blades Malcolm McLaren punk Sex Pistols rebels anarchist “plundering” the old England’s aristocracy hooped skirt – Mini Crini 1985Anglophilia new tartan 1993 MacAndreas Malcolm McLaren studying their cuts bustles crinoline

15 Trends by – fashion designers Vivienne Westwood

16 Vivienne Westwood: Vivienne Westwood has been at the centre of British fashion for 34 years and is one of its most inventive and influential designers. Vivienne Westwood first started selling her outrageous clothes in the shop ‘Let it Rock’ owned by her partner Malcolm McClaren. The ‘punk style’ gained notoriety when clothes designed and made by Westwood were worn by groups such the Sex Pistols and the New York Dolls. ‘Punk Style’ clothing featured skin tight leather clothing with tons of zips trimmed with items such as safety pins, bicycle chains and spiked dog collars worn as jewellery. She combined traditional elements of British design, such as tartan and Harris Tweed, alongside the more unusual elements of her style, which made the overall effect more shocking. A historical influence has always shown in her work, such as the corset and crinoline – taking original cutting principles and modernising them. Other influences in her work include ethnic Peruvian influences, feminine figure, velvet and knitwear. Her Ready-to-Wear collections feature style details such as ripped hems and torn seams. The tube skirt is one of her most successful and commercial designs. Westwood re-launched the corset, which Karl Lagerfeld described as one of the most important fashion ideas of the 20th century. WJEC information – marking scheme info.

17 Key “looks” of Vivienne Westwood – Mini Crini collection 1985 elegance intellectual observation “plundering” the old England’s aristocracy hooped skirt – Mini Crini 1985 Anglophilia traditional materials & patterns dismantled uniforms & costumes heritage heritage an endless inspiration source took women’s bodies hostage in the name of fashion studying their cuts experimenting with new combination rejection & attraction crinoline bustles

18 John Galliano: One of the most influential designers of our time. He is known for creating some of the most spectacular fashion shows in recent years. John Galliano’s varied life has had a direct influence on the vivid colours he uses in his collections. He launched his own label before becoming chief designer of France's haute couture flagship, Christian Dior, in Paris. John Galliano found his first signature mark through strong and personal collections. His sense of elegance and his proud tender vision of women made him a popular designer. His collections have always been considered as romantic, this is evident in his Autumn/winter collection 2001 which was a combination of high-tech modernity and romance. Features of some of his earlier collections include jackets worn upside down and inside out, with romantic organdie shirts. He accessorised his collections with everything from magnifying glasses, smashed and worn as jewellery to rainbow-coloured ribbons sewn onto the insides of coats. Galliano reinvented the 1930s-line bias-cut dress and made it modern, he is also known for creating narrow, very feminine tailoring. WJEC information – marking scheme info.

19 Question 4 is about the design process and how it is used. and also the design question - 25 marks. Design Question You will have design based questions on : Key terms from your coursework What is an evaluation? ongoing and summative What is a specification? design specification and product or manufacturing specification How can we use CAD when designing? Why do we do product analysis? Why do you develop your design ideas?

20 Study the mood board below and use it as inspiration to design a co-ordinated two piece summer outfit for either male or female young adults. MOOD BOARD Exemplar question

21 Your design must: be suitable summer wear for either males or females; reflect the theme and colours of the mood board; include specific named style details; include details of the imaginative use of a named decorative technique; be made of suitable specific named materials. Circle key words so you can focus on the where the marks are. Marks will be awarded for: (i) a co-ordinated two piece design based on the images and colours of the mood board which is suitable summer wear for either male or female young adults; [6] (ii) the imaginative use of a named decorative technique; [3] (iii) labelling three specific style details; [3] (iv) labelling two specific suitable materials; [2] (v) quality of communication. [4] Analyse where the BIG marks are

22 Name style features if you can Justify detail or any thoughts use as much technical language as possible. Make sure you are specific about components, construction and style details e.g. open zips, closed zips, velcro, straps, buckets, buttons and buttonholes single dart, double dart tucks, gathers – drawn or elasticated, drawstrings, casing seams – open – name the neatening overlocked, zig-zag, double stitched (jean seam) french seam for delicate fabrics and underwear. Finishing edges – hems, facing, frills, piping, binding. Drawing in PENCIL – add colour with coloured pencils only Do not spend too much time colouring in – add a splash of colour to indicated colour and texture

23 You can make magnified views to help explain your thinking Justify your fabric choice - time to show off your fabric properties knowledge e.g. Medium weight knitted cotton – cool and absorbent will also stretch with use to allow movement, also use any Smart Materials to max your marks. Water proofed nylon, just naming cotton will not get you high marks.

24 Name style features if you can Identify and use style details which reflect current trends and which are Sleeves: raglan, set-in, dolman, gathered, short/long.

25 Name style features if you can Identify and use style details which reflect current trends and which are Necklines: square/round, sweetheart, boat. Collars: tunnel, sailor, shirt, rever, roll, shawl.

26 Name style features if you can

27 Identify and use style details which reflect current trends and which are Pockets: patch, welt, shaped, in side seam. Fastenings: zips, buttons, buckles, Velcro, eyelets, ties, poppers. Pleats: knife, box, inverted, kick.

28 Name style features if you can Identify and use style details which reflect current trends and which are Necklines: square/round, sweetheart, boat.

29 Question 5 is about Commercial Manufacturing Practices. It is worth a total of 10 marks.

30 Production methods Different scales of textiles production call for different production methods. The main ones are: One-off production One-off production is designing and making a single textile product to a client's specification. The garment design is developed from a basic block pattern, with a prototype made from inexpensive fabric to test the drape, fit and assembly of the garment. Batch production Batch production is manufacturing set quantities of a textile product to order. The prototype is made up in a medium size from the intended fabric. The prototype is checked for quality of design and manufacture, then put into production in a range of standard sizes. The quantity of products can vary from a set of four cushions made by a designer-maker, to 20,000 jumpers made for a department store. Mass production Mass production is industrial-scale manufacture of large quantities of products, usually on a production line. Mass production is suitable for products that seldom need to be redesigned and are needed in very large numbers, eg socks or jeans. The following table explains how these production methods are used in the textile industry:

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33 7 - Batch vs Mass production on a greater scale. If your product were to be sold commercially do you think it would be produced in high volume (mass production) or low volume (Batch production). Mass produced products would be made in a factory with a dedicated production line especially set up just to make your product. Mass produced products would generally be sold in huge numbers in order to reduce the production set up costs. Batch produced items would be made in significantly smaller numbers. A batch would be made in a more versatile production set up as this type of manufacturer may make different items every day. Mass -High volume production likely to be less labour intensive due to CAD/CAM use of automated machinery. Batch -Smaller volumes of production, likely to be more labour intensive.

34 Progressive Bundle System With the progressive bundle system, the sewing operations are laid out in sequence. Each operator receives a bundle, does his/her work, reties the bundle and passes it to the next operator. There is usually a storage facility such as rack, bin or table for storing the inter-process work between each operation. The work is routed by means of tickets. This system is the most widely used system in the garment industry today. It is used in shirt factories, jeans factories, jacket factories, etc. Progressive bundle system: A system used in clothing production where the task of assembling the garment is broken down into small operations, and bundles of work are progressed down the production line through each operation in sequence until the assembly process is complete

35 Progressive Bundle System Advantages: 1.High productivity 2.2. A uniformly high standard of work can be achieved Training time and costs can be reduced Semi-skilled labour can be used. 6. Individual performance can be monitored and incentives offered. Disadvantages 1.Machine investment costs are high The system is not very adaptable for short-run production and frequent style changes, as these require rearrangement of the workstations It involves high handling costs for bundle handling and transportation It requires a high level of management skill to arrange the workflow and decide on the number of operators for each operation.

36 JIT – Just in time Producing parts and products just before they are needed. This means that valuable parts and equipment is not left sitting on the shelf as costing money in storage and unsold product. Producing components without a buyer costs the business money to hod stock Danger of not selling the product becoming obsolete.

37 Question 6 is about Materials and Components. It is worth a total of 15 marks

38 How fabric is constructed – Weaving: plain, twill, satin, herringbone, pile. Knitting: weft knit and a warp knit. Bonding: sticking with adhesives; heating thermoplastic fibres; stitching a web of fibres. Laminating. Felting. Types of fibres and sources Natural polymers: Animal polymers: wool/fleece – mohair, cashmere, angora, alpaca, camel (hair). Insect polymers: silk. Plant polymers: cotton, linen hemp, jute. Manufactured polymers: Natural: rayon, viscose, rubber, metal, glass. Synthetic: polyester, polypropylene, nylon, elastane, lycra, aramid fibres. Microfibres – Tactel, Tencel (Lyocell).

39 The properties of the main natural and manufactured fibres/fabrics including: strength, elasticity, absorbency, durability, insulation, flammability, water repellency, anti-static and resistance to acid, bleach, sunlight. Blending and mixing fibres improves the properties and uses of yarns and Bonding breathable water proof membranes to outer fabrics for allweather wear (Gore-Tex, Permatex). Quilting – polyester wadding between an outer and lining material

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41 Smart fabrics are a must learn See page 49-51

42 Smart fibres and fabrics that respond to the environment or stimuli: Micro-encapsulation. Photochromic properties. Thermochromic properties. Interactive textiles that function as electronic devices and sensors: Circuits integrated into fabrics such as heart rate monitors. Wearable electronics such as mobile phones or music player. Wearable electronics integrated into the fabric itself. The impact of biotechnology. Micro fibres in clothing manufacture. Breathable materials. Sun protective clothing. Kevlar (used in cables for civil engineering – modular compression engineering); recycling PET bottles into fleece fabrics. carbon fibres. Nomex. Geotextiles for landscaping. Rhovyl as an antibacterial fibre. Smart fabric

43 Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making related to textiles technology. It is worth a total of 20 marks.

44 Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making related to textiles technology. It is worth a total of 20 marks.

45 On the pattern layout question Straight of grain along the selvedge edge Take time to work out the pattern pieces and where they could be placed – all pieces to run along the straight of grain.

46 Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and Processes. It is worth a total of 15 marks.

47 Read pages

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50 All production systems consist of inputs, processes and outputs. Usually there is a feedback loop as well, to enable the inputs and processes to be modified as a result of quality control checks or feedback from customers. Production systems can be modelled with a system diagram like the one below.

51 Other Information You May Be Asked ABOUT in The Exam……… Computers are a great way of helping you design and manufacture a textile product. They ensure accuracy in the finish product. There are three main ways in which computers can help in the researching, designing and manufacture of a textile product.  CAD- (Computer aided design) using computers to help design your product  CAM-(Computer aided manufacture) using machinery to help with the manufacture of textile products. Three ways in which computer are used in the designing and making of textile products: Number 1:Researching and presenting a design Internet- Researching retailers and designers to gather ideas for your own product Trend websites- These websites have information on which fabrics, shapes and colours are in vogue Digital cameras- Taking photographs of similar products 3D modelling- Using computer software to show your designs on a 3D model. Spreadsheets- can help with calculating the cost of fabric and components. Number 1:Researching and presenting a design Internet- Researching retailers and designers to gather ideas for your own product Trend websites- These websites have information on which fabrics, shapes and colours are in vogue Digital cameras- Taking photographs of similar products 3D modelling- Using computer software to show your designs on a 3D model. Spreadsheets- can help with calculating the cost of fabric and components. Trend websites Retailer websites Digital cameras 3D Modelling

52 Number 2: CAD (Computer aided design) The advantages of using CAD allows you to make changes and adjustments to your design without having to redraw, it is also really quick. Here a few ways in which this can be used;- 3D modelling software- this allows you to design a product in 3D, a visual prototype. 2D paint software- allows you to design logos and repeat patterns and experiment with different colours (colourways) Scanners- allow you to scan fabrics which can be applied to a 3D model. Number 2: CAD (Computer aided design) The advantages of using CAD allows you to make changes and adjustments to your design without having to redraw, it is also really quick. Here a few ways in which this can be used;- 3D modelling software- this allows you to design a product in 3D, a visual prototype. 2D paint software- allows you to design logos and repeat patterns and experiment with different colours (colourways) Scanners- allow you to scan fabrics which can be applied to a 3D model. Scanning2D paint software Number 3: CAM (Computer aided manufacture) CAM allows you to produce a product with a lot more speed and accuracy. Here a few ways in which this can be used;- Computerised sewing machines- a complicated logo or motif can be embroidered on to a product. Computerised fabric printers- computers can be used to produce large amounts of printed fabric. For example automated screen printing, this ensures quality and accuracy. Drawing patterns and layplans- computers allow you to adjust patterns. Computers also plan the most economical way in which to lay the pattern pieces on the fabric. Laser cutters- Computers are used to control lasers which cut out fabric in multiple layers. CNC technology Number 3: CAM (Computer aided manufacture) CAM allows you to produce a product with a lot more speed and accuracy. Here a few ways in which this can be used;- Computerised sewing machines- a complicated logo or motif can be embroidered on to a product. Computerised fabric printers- computers can be used to produce large amounts of printed fabric. For example automated screen printing, this ensures quality and accuracy. Drawing patterns and layplans- computers allow you to adjust patterns. Computers also plan the most economical way in which to lay the pattern pieces on the fabric. Laser cutters- Computers are used to control lasers which cut out fabric in multiple layers. CNC technology Digital printing Laser Cutter Drawing patterns and layplans Computerised Sewing machine

53 Advantages of CAD/CAM  It reduces time and labour costs.  Changes can be made quickly and easily to the design  Visual prototypes can be produced, giving the client a better idea of how your design will look.  It is very accurate, which helps to ensure a high quality product.  Large amounts of identical products can be manufactured quickly and accurately. Advantages of CAD/CAM  It reduces time and labour costs.  Changes can be made quickly and easily to the design  Visual prototypes can be produced, giving the client a better idea of how your design will look.  It is very accurate, which helps to ensure a high quality product.  Large amounts of identical products can be manufactured quickly and accurately. Disadvantages of CAD/CAM  The software is very expensive.  Workers require training in how to use CAD/CAM and this can be expensive.  Computer virus can mean that work can be destroyed. Disadvantages of CAD/CAM  The software is very expensive.  Workers require training in how to use CAD/CAM and this can be expensive.  Computer virus can mean that work can be destroyed. 1) Printing is a popular method of adding colour to a fabric. Briefly describe one industrial printing method which could be used to put the Pattern on the fabric shown on right. _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ (c) Computers are used in the design and manufacture of printed fabrics. Explain how Computer Aided Design (CAD) can be used to produce a print design. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________(4 marks) (ii) Explain how Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) can be used to produce a printed fabric. _____ ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________4 marks)

54 PATTERN MARKINGS Components are all the items you need to make your design but not the equipment or main material. You will need material for appliqué if you use that technique. Dyes, fabric paints. You will need some pre manufactured components such as, Velcro, buttons or poppers, zips. Thread, Bondaweb, stranded embroidery thread (made from cotton), ribbon

55 Quality control is a way of making sure that the product you make is fit for the purpose it was made. The product should meet the criteria set down in the specification. To make sure the product meets that specification tests and checks are carried out throughout the making of the product. In your production plan you will have selected critical points to see if the product is good enough e.g. once the product is cut out you will check it is the correct size. Each stage of production can be graded: Acceptable quality - the product matches the specification Rework - the product does not meet the specification but can be redone e.g. a hem can be re-machined Reject - the product cannot be corrected e.g. the fabric is torn - this is where many ‘second’ products come from. Computers are used in many ways in the textile and fashion industry: from client presentation through design, manufacture, stock control to sales.Computers are used because they can easily and effectively display product ranges, give a reduction in time taken and can decrease cost and increase efficiency Research & Presenting:Internet, interactive trend sites, sending images through , mood-boards, costing (spread sheets), presentation boards Designing: Developing ideas (drawn and researched on computer), creating designs, creating garment outlines, creating patterns for fabric, developing colour-ways, using virtual designs (3D images of design) Controlling machines: Knitting machines, pattern drafting machines, cutting machines, weaving looms, testing equipment, digital printing, screen-printing, embroidery machines Manufacturing:Manufacturing plans and specifications, controlling dying, controlling spinning, laser cutting, lay planning systems, body measurement software Selling: Internet selling, advertising, mail-shots, websites, security tagging and labelling. Items can be re-ordered through bar coding system

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