Presentation on theme: "TEXTILES - Theory paper"— Presentation transcript:
1 TEXTILES - Theory paper Main format of the examination paper -Eight questions – 2 hours – 40%Use this guide along with your Revision guidebook:KEY pages:8-12 – types of research and specification heading and types.– colour primary, secondary, monochromic,, complementary, harmonious, warm, cold, pattern and texture.recycling and sustainability.26 –27 mood boards and trend forecasting32 – 33 types of specifications
2 Fibres and yarns 36 – 51 – is a key area that you must learn. What are fibres and yarn. Different types of fabrics - knitted, woven and bonded fabrics. Weave types. Properties of fabrics – p41 and how fabrics can be combined. Special fabrics – p43 elastane, Kevlar, microfibres.Finishes – there three types – physical, biological and chemicals – know about three different types for each type. P 44 – 47.Smart fabrics –Read p 54 – 58 about different ways of decorating fabricPattern making – lay planning – construction techniques – – key pages to learn. .Quality control and quality assurance. - p68Fabric testing – p67 – often there is a question on this.Regulation and standards – p68 – 69 – NB BSI and CE symbolProduction planning – p key areaProduction plans and use of computer in textiles – p 76 – 79Industrial clothes manufacture – 80 – 81 – important area.Labelling – p86- 87
3 Question 1 – Product analysis – 15 marks Read the question carefully and respond as fully as possible. .You may be given a product and asked to critically analyse it – take this opportunity to show off your technical knowledge and language. Questions will be similar to the design specification – relating points to target group, material properties, aesthetics, safety
4 You need to be able to write a specification Question 1 – Product analysis – 15 marksYou need to be able to write a specificationLook at the aesthetics of a productStudy the function of a productQuality issues relating to the productSafety issues relating to a productConsider the scale of manufactureHow it is madeSafety considerations when making a product
5 Write a specification for a weekend bag you may want to write about the following SizeCostProductionManufactureAestheticsHow it is made
6 Mass vs Batch Production If your product were to be sold commercially do you think it would be produced in high volume (mass production) or low volume (Batch production).Mass produced products would be made in a factory with a dedicated production line especially set up just to make your product. Mass produced products would generally be sold in huge numbers in order to reduce the production set up costs.Batch produced items would be made in significantly smaller numbers. A batch would be made in a more versatile production set up as this type of manufacturer may make different items every day.Mass-High volume production likely to be less labour intensive due to CAD/CAM use of automated machinery.Batch-Smaller volumes of production, likely to be more labour intensive.
7 Question 2 is about the general issues of Design and Technology Question 2 is about the general issues of Design and Technology. It is worth a total of 10marks.Environmental issues6 R’sLabelling - • Kitemark. • C E markingChildren's goods and toys – Lion mark.Care labelling codes using symbols.
8 SustainabilityHow can we achieve a sustainable future as designers and manufacturers?Use environmentally friendly materialsUse materials that can be recycled or reusedUse materials that do not use a lot of power to produce.Use materials that are easy to recycle
9 Why are sustainability issues and environmental issues important. Global warming due to industry and carbon emissions (polar ice caps melting, sea levels increasing changes to global weather)The planet has not got an infinite supply of materials. It is estimated that we have 30yrs of oil supplies left. Plastic is made from oil.Landfill costs us millions of pound a year and we are running out of places to put our rubbish.Designers have a duty to limit the impact of their products and prevent a negative environmental impact.Sustainability is more than using recycled or recyclable materials to manufacture their products.It is the total impact that the process of designing has on the environment.
10 The six R’s Sustainability – You need to know these!! RethinkReuseRecycleRepairReduceRefuseRead information on page 22 of your revision notes for further details
11 SustainabilityLife cycle analysis – look at the impact of these products, what will happen to them in the futureCheap cotton clothing – huge use of chemicals, land and water. Cheap labour – 50p a day for use to wear nearly “disposable” clothes. The £2 t-shirt is “costing the earth”Clothes are now such poor quality they cannot be recycled to Africa etc where there is a big demand.Traditionally – patchworkShoe soles (tyres)Play mats (tyres)Plastics (benches)Glass variousMetal variousProducts made from recycled materials
12 Responsibility in designing and making Social – Enjoyment that product may give and effect on quality of life. Does the product have a positive effect on life.Economic – Cost, is it value for money and commercially viable. Does it use too much non renewable resources in the production process.Environmental- How much co2 does it give off in production. Can it be re-cycled. Can it be re-used. Does the process by which it is made give off bad by-product (noise, smell, pollution).Designers need to think about the environmental impact of their products after they have ended their useful period. Well known designers who are “up cycling” e.g. Junkystyling, Treepeople.Will they end up in landfill, can they be recycled reused, look at the 6 R’s.
13 Question 3 is about the designers you have studied Question 3 is about the designers you have studied. It is worth a total of 10 marks.John Galliano Vivienne WestwoodYou will need to know key aspects about these designers –You need to study these two designers and understand the following aspects:(a) the range of work that they have produced over time;(b) how to identify the work of each of the Designers;(c) the innovations and/or new ideas that the two Designers have introduced over time;(d) the influence that each of the two Designers has had on the world of Design and TechnologyBe prepared to compare the two designers!
14 Select 20 keywords that describe or personify Vivienne Westwood flashyeccentricoriginalprovocativeinspiringrebellionrebel against tasteless casual wearelegancepassionthere can be no good taste without elegancerebelsprovocativeMalcolm McLarenone of the most influential British fashion designersprovocative printsintellectual observationzipper, safety pins, razor bladesanarchistSex Pistolspunkstudying their cutsMalcolm McLarenbustles“plundering” the oldEngland’s aristocracycrinolinehooped skirt – Mini Crini 1985Anglophilianew tartan 1993 MacAndreas
15 Trends by – fashion designers Vivienne Westwood
16 WJEC information – marking scheme info. Vivienne Westwood:• Vivienne Westwood has been at the centre of British fashion for 34 years and is one of its most inventive and influential designers.• Vivienne Westwood first started selling her outrageous clothes in the shop ‘Let it Rock’ owned by her partner Malcolm McClaren.• The ‘punk style’ gained notoriety when clothes designed and made by Westwood were worn by groups such the Sex Pistols and the New York Dolls.• ‘Punk Style’ clothing featured skin tight leather clothing with tons of zips trimmed with items such as safety pins, bicycle chains and spiked dog collars worn as jewellery.• She combined traditional elements of British design, such as tartan and Harris Tweed, alongside the more unusual elements of her style, which made the overall effect moreshocking.• A historical influence has always shown in her work, such as the corset and crinoline – taking original cutting principles and modernising them.• Other influences in her work include ethnic Peruvian influences, feminine figure, velvet and knitwear.• Her Ready-to-Wear collections feature style details such as ripped hems and torn seams.• The tube skirt is one of her most successful and commercial designs.• Westwood re-launched the corset, which Karl Lagerfeld described as one of the most important fashion ideas of the 20th century.
17 Key “looks” of Vivienne Westwood – Mini Crini collection 1985 “plundering” the oldeleganceEngland’s aristocracyheritageheritage an endless inspiration sourcetraditional materials & patternsdismantled uniforms & costumesstudying their cutsbustlesexperimenting with new combinationrejection & attractionAnglophiliaintellectual observationcrinolinehooped skirt – Mini Crini 1985took women’s bodies hostage in the name of fashion
18 WJEC information – marking scheme info. John Galliano:• One of the most influential designers of our time.• He is known for creating some of the most spectacular fashion shows in recent years.• John Galliano’s varied life has had a direct influence on thevivid colours he uses in his collections.• He launched his own label before becoming chief designer of France's haute couture flagship, Christian Dior, in Paris.• John Galliano found his first signature mark through strong and personal collections.• His sense of elegance and his proud tender vision of women made him a popular designer.• His collections have always been considered as romantic, this is evident in his Autumn/winter collection 2001 which was a combination of high-tech modernity and romance.• Features of some of his earlier collections include jackets worn upside down and inside out, with romantic organdie shirts.• He accessorised his collections with everything from magnifying glasses, smashed and worn as jewellery to rainbow-coloured ribbons sewn onto the insides of coats.• Galliano reinvented the 1930s-line bias-cut dress and made it modern, he is also known for creating narrow, very feminine tailoring.
19 Question 4 is about the design process and how it is used Question 4 is about the design process and how it is used. and also the design question - 25 marks.Design QuestionYou will have design based questions on :Key terms from your courseworkWhat is an evaluation? ongoing and summativeWhat is a specification? design specification and product or manufacturing specificationHow can we use CAD when designing?Why do we do product analysis?Why do you develop your design ideas?
20 Exemplar questionStudy the mood board below and use it as inspiration to design a co-ordinated two piece summer outfit for either male or female young adults.MOOD BOARD
21 Analyse where the BIG marks are Your design must:• be suitable summer wear for either males or females;• reflect the theme and colours of the mood board;• include specific named style details;• include details of the imaginative use of a named decorative technique;• be made of suitable specific named materials.Circle key words so you can focus on the where the marks are.Marks will be awarded for:(i) a co-ordinated two piece design based on the images and colours of the moodboard which is suitable summer wear for either male or female young adults; (ii) the imaginative use of a named decorative technique; (iii) labelling three specific style details; (iv) labelling two specific suitable materials; (v) quality of communication. Analyse where the BIG marks are
22 Name style features if you can Drawing in PENCIL – add colour with coloured pencils onlyDo not spend too much time colouring in – add a splash of colour to indicated colour and textureJustify detail or any thoughts use as much technical language as possible.Name style features if you canMake sure you are specific about components, construction and style details e.g.open zips, closed zips, velcro, straps, buckets, buttons and buttonholessingle dart, double darttucks, gathers – drawn or elasticated, drawstrings, casingseams – open – name the neatening overlocked, zig-zag, double stitched (jean seam) french seam for delicate fabrics and underwear.Finishing edges – hems, facing, frills, piping, binding.
23 You can make magnified views to help explain your thinking Justify your fabric choice - time to show off your fabric properties knowledge e.g. Medium weight knitted cotton – cool and absorbent will also stretch with use to allow movement, also use any Smart Materials to max your marks. Water proofed nylon , just naming cotton will not get you high marks.
24 Name style features if you can Identify and use style details which reflect current trends and which areSleeves: raglan, set-in, dolman, gathered, short/long.
25 Necklines: square/round, sweetheart, boat. Name style features if you canIdentify and use style details which reflect current trends and which areNecklines: square/round, sweetheart, boat.Collars: tunnel, sailor, shirt, rever, roll, shawl.
27 Pockets: patch, welt, shaped, in side seam. Name style features if you canIdentify and use style details which reflect current trends and which arePockets: patch, welt, shaped, in side seam.Fastenings: zips, buttons, buckles, Velcro, eyelets, ties, poppers.Pleats: knife, box, inverted, kick.
28 Necklines: square/round, sweetheart, boat. Name style features if you canIdentify and use style details which reflect current trends and which areNecklines: square/round, sweetheart, boat.
29 Question 5 is about Commercial Manufacturing Practices Question 5 is about Commercial Manufacturing Practices. It is worth a total of 10 marks.
30 Production methodsDifferent scales of textiles production call for different production methods. The main ones are:One-off productionOne-off production is designing and making a single textile product to a client's specification. The garment design is developed from a basic block pattern, with a prototype made from inexpensive fabric to test the drape, fit and assembly of the garment.Batch productionBatch production is manufacturing set quantities of a textile product to order. The prototype is made up in a medium size from the intended fabric. The prototype is checked for quality of design and manufacture, then put into production in a range of standard sizes. The quantity of products can vary from a set of four cushions made by a designer-maker, to 20,000 jumpers made for a department store.Mass productionMass production is industrial-scale manufacture of large quantities of products, usually on a production line. Mass production is suitable for products that seldom need to be redesigned and are needed in very large numbers, eg socks or jeans.The following table explains how these production methods are used in the textile industry:
33 7 - Batch vs Mass production on a greater scale. If your product were to be sold commercially do you think it would be produced in high volume (mass production) or low volume (Batch production).Mass produced products would be made in a factory with a dedicated production line especially set up just to make your product. Mass produced products would generally be sold in huge numbers in order to reduce the production set up costs.Batch produced items would be made in significantly smaller numbers. A batch would be made in a more versatile production set up as this type of manufacturer may make different items every day.Mass-High volume production likely to be less labour intensive due to CAD/CAM use of automated machinery.Batch-Smaller volumes of production, likely to be more labour intensive.
34 Progressive Bundle System With the progressive bundle system, the sewing operations are laid out in sequence. Each operator receives a bundle, does his/her work, reties the bundle and passes it to the next operator. There is usually a storage facility such as rack, bin or table for storing the inter-process work between each operation. The work is routed by means of tickets. This system is the most widely used system in the garment industry today. It is used in shirt factories, jeans factories, jacket factories, etc.Progressive bundle system:A system used in clothing production where the task of assembling the garment is broken down into small operations, and bundles of work are progressed down the production line through each operation in sequence until the assembly process is complete
35 Progressive Bundle System Advantages:High productivity2. A uniformly high standard of work can be achieved.3. Training time and costs can be reduced.4. Semi-skilled labour can be used. 6. Individual performance can be monitored and incentives offered.DisadvantagesMachine investment costs are high.2. The system is not very adaptable for short-run production and frequent style changes, as these require rearrangement of the workstations.3. It involves high handling costs for bundle handling and transportation.4. It requires a high level of management skill to arrange the workflow and decide on the number of operators for each operation.
36 JIT – Just in timeProducing parts and products just before they are needed.This means that valuable parts and equipment is not left sitting on the shelf as costing money in storage and unsold product.Producing components without a buyer costs the business money to hod stockDanger of not selling the product becoming obsolete.
37 Question 6 is about Materials and Components Question 6 is about Materials and Components. It is worth a total of 15 marks
38 How fabric is constructed – • Weaving: plain, twill, satin, herringbone, pile.• Knitting: weft knit and a warp knit.• Bonding: sticking with adhesives; heating thermoplastic fibres; stitching aweb of fibres.• Laminating.• Felting.Types of fibres and sourcesNatural polymers:• Animal polymers: wool/fleece – mohair, cashmere, angora, alpaca,camel (hair).• Insect polymers: silk.• Plant polymers: cotton, linen hemp, jute.Manufactured polymers:• Natural: rayon, viscose, rubber, metal, glass.• Synthetic: polyester, polypropylene, nylon, elastane, lycra, aramidfibres.• Microfibres – Tactel, Tencel (Lyocell).
39 strength, elasticity, absorbency, durability, insulation, • The properties of the main natural and manufactured fibres/fabricsincluding:strength, elasticity, absorbency, durability, insulation,flammability, water repellency, anti-static and resistance to acid, bleach, sunlight.• Blending and mixing fibres improves the properties and uses of yarns and• Bonding breathable water proof membranes to outer fabrics for allweatherwear (Gore-Tex, Permatex).• Quilting – polyester wadding between an outer and lining material
42 Smart fabric• Smart fibres and fabrics that respond to the environment or stimuli:Micro-encapsulation.Photochromic properties.Thermochromic properties.• Interactive textiles that function as electronic devices and sensors:Circuits integrated into fabrics such as heart rate monitors.Wearable electronics such as mobile phones or music player.Wearable electronics integrated into the fabric itself.• The impact of biotechnology.• Micro fibres in clothing manufacture.• Breathable materials.• Sun protective clothing.• Kevlar (used in cables for civil engineering – modular compressionengineering); recycling PET bottles into fleece fabrics.• carbon fibres.• Nomex.• Geotextiles for landscaping.• Rhovyl as an antibacterial fibre.
43 Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making related to textiles technology. It is worth a total of 20 marks.
44 Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making related to textiles technology. It is worth a total of 20 marks.
45 Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making related to textiles technology. It is worth a total of 20 marks.On the pattern layout questionStraight of grain along the selvedge edgeTake time to work out the pattern pieces and where they could be placed – all pieces to run along the straight of grain.
46 Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and Processes Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and Processes. It is worth a total of 15 marks.
47 Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and Processes Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and Processes. It is worth a total of 15 marks.Read pages
50 All production systems consist of inputs, processes and outputs All production systems consist of inputs, processes and outputs. Usually there is a feedback loop as well, to enable the inputs and processes to be modified as a result of quality control checks or feedback from customers. Production systems can be modelled with a system diagram like the one below.
51 Number 1:Researching and presenting a design Other Information You May Be Asked ABOUT in The Exam………Textiles and ComputersComputers are a great way of helping you design and manufacture a textile product. They ensure accuracy in the finish product.There are three main ways in which computers can help in the researching, designing and manufacture of a textile product.CAD- (Computer aided design) using computers to help design your productCAM-(Computer aided manufacture) using machinery to help with the manufacture of textile products.Three ways in which computer are used in the designing and making of textile products:Trend websitesRetailer websitesNumber 1:Researching and presenting a designInternet- Researching retailers and designers to gather ideas for your own productTrend websites- These websites have information on which fabrics, shapes and colours are in vogueDigital cameras- Taking photographs of similar products3D modelling- Using computer software to show your designs on a 3D model.Spreadsheets- can help with calculating the cost of fabric and components.Digital cameras3D Modelling
52 Number 2: CAD (Computer aided design) The advantages of using CAD allows you to make changes and adjustments to your design without having to redraw, it is also really quick. Here a few ways in which this can be used;-3D modelling software- this allows you to design a product in 3D, a visual prototype.2D paint software- allows you to design logos and repeat patterns and experiment with different colours (colourways)Scanners- allow you to scan fabrics which can be applied to a 3D model.Scanning2D paint softwareNumber 3: CAM (Computer aided manufacture)CAM allows you to produce a product with a lot more speed and accuracy. Here a few ways in which this can be used;-Computerised sewing machines- a complicated logo or motif can be embroidered on to a product.Computerised fabric printers- computers can be used to produce large amounts of printed fabric. For example automated screen printing, this ensures quality and accuracy.Drawing patterns and layplans- computers allow you to adjust patterns. Computers also plan the most economical way in which to lay the pattern pieces on the fabric.Laser cutters- Computers are used to control lasers which cut out fabric in multiple layers. CNC technologyComputerised Sewing machineDigital printingDrawing patterns and layplansLaser Cutter
53 Advantages of CAD/CAMIt reduces time and labour costs.Changes can be made quickly and easily to the designVisual prototypes can be produced, giving the client a better idea of how your design will look.It is very accurate, which helps to ensure a high quality product.Large amounts of identical products can be manufactured quickly and accurately.Disadvantages of CAD/CAMThe software is very expensive.Workers require training in how to use CAD/CAM and this can be expensive.Computer virus can mean that work can be destroyed.(c) Computers are used in the design and manufacture of printed fabrics.Explain how Computer Aided Design (CAD) can be used to produce a print design.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________(4 marks)(ii) Explain how Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) can be used to produce aprinted fabric._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4 marks)1) Printing is a popular method of adding colour to a fabric.Briefly describe one industrial printing method which could be used to put thePattern on the fabric shown on right._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
54 PATTERN MARKINGSComponents are all the items you need to make your design but not the equipment or main material. You will need material for appliqué if you use that technique.Dyes, fabric paints. You will need some pre manufactured components such as, Velcro, buttons or poppers, zips.Thread, Bondaweb, stranded embroidery thread (made from cotton), ribbon
55 Quality control is a way of making sure that the product you make is fit for the purpose it was made. The product should meet the criteria set down in the specification.To make sure the product meets that specification tests and checks are carried out throughout the making of the product.In your production plan you will have selected critical points to see if the product is good enough e.g. once the product is cut out you will check it is the correct size.Each stage of production can be graded: Acceptable quality - the product matches the specificationRework - the product does not meet the specification but can be redone e.g. a hem can be re-machinedReject - the product cannot be corrected e.g. the fabric is torn - this is where many ‘second’ products come from.Computers are used in many ways in the textile and fashion industry: from client presentation through design, manufacture, stock control to sales.Computers are used because they can easily and effectively display product ranges, give a reduction in time taken and can decrease cost and increase efficiencyResearch & Presenting:Internet, interactive trend sites, sending images through , mood-boards, costing (spread sheets), presentation boardsDesigning: Developing ideas (drawn and researched on computer), creating designs, creating garment outlines, creating patterns for fabric, developing colour-ways, using virtual designs (3D images of design)Controlling machines: Knitting machines, pattern drafting machines, cutting machines, weaving looms, testing equipment, digital printing, screen-printing, embroidery machinesManufacturing:Manufacturing plans and specifications, controlling dying, controlling spinning, laser cutting, lay planning systems, body measurement softwareSelling: Internet selling, advertising, mail-shots, websites, security tagging and labelling. Items can be re-ordered through bar coding system