We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byHumberto Robe
Modified over 2 years ago
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Centre for Executive Learning and Leadership Social Networks Dr David Denyer...developing professional practice to make a difference
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Purpose of the presentation To understand the significance of social networks To explore how social networks can be built, shaped and used To examine the structure and effectiveness of your social networks
What are social networks? Why are they important? In 2s / 3s 5 minutes Feedback to whole group
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Firms/individuals seek to utilise 3 types of ‘capital’ Intellectual –“knowledge and knowing capability” (What) 1,3 Human –“skills and capabilities” (How) 1,4,5 Social –“networks of relationships” (Who) 2,5,6 1 Alvesson (2001 ), 2 Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998), 4 Spender (1996), 5 Coleman (1988), 6 Bourdieu (1986)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Success is not just dependent on knowledge or skills and capabilities but your network of relationships
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Social capital “Social capital is the goodwill available to individuals or groups. Its source lies in the structure and content of the actor's social relations. Its effects flow from the information, influence, and solidarity it makes available to the actor.” 1 Three dimensions 2 –Structural: network ties –Relational: trust –Cognitive: shared goals, plans 1 Adler & Kwon (2002: p.23), 2 Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Why are social networks important? Power 1 Leadership 2 Getting a job 3 Getting ahead 4 Performance 5 Higher performance ratings 6 Faster promotions 7 Higher salaries 8 Influencing others 9 Learning 10 Transferring knowledge 11 Attitude similarity 12 Job satisfaction 13 1 (e.g. Brass, 1984; Krackhardt, 1990); 2 (e.g. Leavitt, 1951); 3 (e.g. Granovetter, 1973); 4 (Burt, 1992); 5 (Brass, 1981; Mehra et al., 2001); 6 (Burt, 1992); 7 (Boxman et al., 1991; Seidel et al., 2000); 8 (French and Raven, 1968; Pfeffer; Friedkin, 1993; Krackhardt, 1987); 9 (Pfeffer and Sutton, 2000); 10 (Cross and Parker, 2002); 11 (e.g. Burkhardt, 1994); 12 (e.g. Roberts and O’Reilly, 1979)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Networks and Performance Centrality in an informal communication network is positively associated with promotion 1 and performance 2 Individuals with networks spanning social divides are associated with higher performance 3 Performance was positively related to centrality in advice networks 4 Centrality in social networks predicted individuals' workplace performance 5 Betweenness centrality in both information and awareness networks to be related to individual performance 6 The more an individual is asked for advice the better their performance; asking for advice is not correlated to performance 7 1 (e.g. Brass, 1984); 2 (Baldwin, Bedell & Johnson, 1997); 3 (Burt, 1992); 4 (Sparrowe, Liden, Wayne & Kraimer, 2001); 5 (Mehra, Kilduff & Brass, 2001); 6 (Cross & Cummings, 2004); 7 (Agnessens, 2006)
What do social networks look like?
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management What is a network? A set of ties, all of the same type, among a set of actors –Actors can be persons, organizations… –A tie is an instance of a social relation
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Important relations Power / Status / Leadership / Role –boss of, teacher of… Cognitive/perceptual –knows, aware of what they know… Affective –likes, trusts, motivates… Communication –live advice, talks to, provides information to… Affiliations –belong to the same club, department, organisation…
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management A snapshot / x-ray of the organisation
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management = Waste A social network map = Ports = Rail = Highways = Property Departments = Education = Gas I frequently or very frequently receive information from this person that I need to do my job. (Senior Managers / Directors) = CEO
What is the most effective network structure?
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Star Y Chain 5 Network patterns: fastest? least errors? leadership? morale? All-Channel Circle 1 Bavelas (1948), 2 Leavitt (1951)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Star “basic formal” Fast Few messages Few errors Highest leadership Y “Mixed” Between chain and star on most measures Chain “hierarchical” Slow Many messages Dissatisfied Circle “autocratic” Slow Many messages Satisfied No leadership “We need a system” 5 Network patterns: fastest? least errors? leadership? morale? All-Channel “informal” Fastest, fewest errors, Highest satisfaction No leadership 1 Bavelas (1948), 2 Leavitt (1951)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Centralized vs decentralized systems VariableSimple TaskComplex Task Fewest messagescentralized Least timecentralizeddecentralized Least errorscentralizeddecentralized Most satisfactiondecentralized 1 Bavelas (1948), 2 Leavitt (1951)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Dense networks with many redundant ties creates social support Interdependent relations Information spreads quickly But, people in the same clique know the same information You Redundant ties Bob Jenny Toby Carl
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Sparse networks with few redundant ties creates social support Independent relations Ties across important subgroups Provides access to new ideas and information Provides control and power “Capitalize on the opportunities in the white space of the network” 1 Much more likely to be in the companies top 20% 1 You Non- redundant tie Bob Jenny Toby Carl 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.168)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management The same applies for organisations: IT alliances in 1999 1 Valdis Krebs (2000)
How many people?
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Our networks extend beyond the people that we immediately know The http://www.cs.virginia.edu/oracle/http://www.cs.virginia.edu/oracle/
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Even large networks are surprisingly small For example, in a network of 739,980 actors the average distance (links) between actors is only 2.9 Kevin Bacon Number # of People 01 11902 2160463 3457231 4111310 58168 6810 781 814
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management rank = 116 rank = 668 rank = 1 183 movies 50 year career
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Small World Phenomenon 1 Stanley Milgram (1967)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Even large organisations are surprisingly small
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Question 1. Over the last 3 months I have typically sought work-related information from this person.
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Question 2. Over the last three months, I have turned to this person to help me think through a new or challenging problem at work?
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Question 3. If I was promoting an important new project or initiative this person would be influential in getting it approved or obtaining resources that I would need to make it work.
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Question 4. Over the last 3 months when work was going badly, or I have been worried about a deadline or target, I have turned to this person for support.
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Question 5. I understand this person's knowledge and skills. This does not necessarily mean that I have these skills or am knowledgeable in these domains but that I understand what skills this person has and domains they are knowledgeable in.
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Question 6. When I need information or advice, this person is generally accessible to me within a sufficient amount of time to help me solve my problem.
6 Common Network Traps
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Trap 1: The ‘bottlenecks’ 1 President Carter’s Administration meetings year 1 / year 4 2 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.168) 2 Michael Link Remedy Identify information, decision rights and tasks that can be reallocated Challenge Overloaded, personal burnout Lack of new ideas Slow to respond
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Remedy Identify brokers, marginalized voices, overloaded points and fragmentation Trap 2: The ‘formalists’ 1 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.168) 2 Cross, Parker and Borgatti (2003) Challenge Inaccurate perception of the informal network Lack of understanding of how work really gets done Who do you go to for information to get your work done?
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Trap 3: The ‘disconnected experts’ 1 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.167) Challenge Can be a high performer Fails to leverage network resources (technical expertise or skills) Finds change difficult (e.g. new role) Remedy Actively build ties to those who can provide expertise and skills
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Trap 4: The ‘biased networkers’ 1 Challenge Allow people who are similar and close (physical location) to dominate their network Remedy Identify underinvestment and overinvestment in relationship – strive for balance 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.167)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Trap 5: The ‘surface networkers’ 1 Challenge Surface level interactions that fail to build trust or reciprocity Network only works when they have something to offer Remedy Identify the perceptions of others. Modify behaviour accordingly 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.167)
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Remedy Discover where and how people need to be connected underneath the leaders Encourage networking across silos Trap 6: The ‘chameleons’ 1 1 Cross and Thomas (2008: p.168) Challenge Leaders absorb the interests and values of diverse subgroups Lack of alignment below the leaders drains momentum
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Business Relationship Networking Individually create a stakeholder map and assessment of relationship strengths Create a plan for influence and relationship building Know where to focus your effort
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Business Relationship Networking: Personal career progression Who are the people you need to influence (the people critical to your next move)? What is your strength of relationship with each of these people? Who are the connectors in your network? Where do you need to focus energy? How will you do it?
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Business Relationship Networking ME Boss Project Leader Team member 2 Team member 1 Project colleague 1 Mentor Project colleague 2
© CELL - Cranfield School of Management Process Start by putting yourself in the center of the page and then making circles for each of the people that you have key business relationships with. Draw lines connecting you to each person to represent the strength of the current relationship you have. –3 lines = very strong relationship, 2 = medium relationship, 1= low relationship strength. Now make an assessment of the relationships between some of these people. i.e. in this example you perceive that your project leader and your boss have a very strong relationship. Draw the distinction between Direct Influence and In-direct influence – so in this example how could the very strong relationship you have with your project leader enable you to improve the relationship you have with your boss? Now review each relationship and decide whether you want to maintain or enhance the level of each one. Look at the direct and indirect influencing possibilities and work with a partner to come up with a plan/ share ideas for how you might achieve your desired relationship status.
Amanda Felix BUS 550 Tuesday, May 24, Traditional methods are not enough! Reduce costs, improve efficiency and spur innovation! Information.
Managing Your Social Capital Priscilla Arling University of Minnesota, Carlson School of Management – AWCTC March 2005.
Scott Lowrey, Ed.D. (OISE/University of Toronto) CCEAM/CASEA 2014.
1 Lotus Connections Customer Use Cases The following are stories from early customer engagements. They were created to help people understand the many.
How to Enhance Personal Productivity By Janet Hadley
Fundamentals of Organization Structure
BUSINESS TEAM 7/3/ Basics of Team Building Team Building is the process of collective performance A team comprises two or more people with shared.
Copyright © pattianklamdotcom 2007 Net Work and KM Leadership Patti Anklam Boston KM Forum June 26, 2007.
Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration By Rob Cross, Stephen P. Borgatti and Andrew Parker.
Chapter 8 Management, Leadership, and Internal Organization Learning Goals Define management and the skills necessary for managerial success. Explain the.
AMDIS conference Jenny Davenport 14 th May Influencing stakeholders Employer Brand Employee engagement What I will cover 2.
Chapter 9 : SOCIAL NETWORKS Learning Objectives Understand the social network vocabulary Know why social networks and networking are valuable Learn.
Human Services Integration Building More Effective Responses to Peoples’ Needs.
Employee Engagement Survey
Leading Australian Curriculum: Science Day 1. Australian Curriculum PURPOSE OF 4 DAY MODULES Curriculum leaders develop capacity to lead change and support.
Developing Business Practice – 302LON Preparing for a Successful Work Experience Unit: 9 Knowledgecast: 2.
Management, Leadership, & Internal Organization………..
Gallup Q12 Definitions Notes to Managers
Organizational culture and Knowledge management B.V.L.Narayana Sr Professor (T M ) RSC/BRC.
TEAMWORK Training the Programme Developers. Teamwork: why do we need it? Responsibility, potential and delegation Your optimal potential Resposibility.
Content Vocabulary Word Documentation. Content Vocabulary 0 Teamwork: cooperative or coordinated effort on the part of a group of persons acting together.
Principalship: Roles & Responsibilities PINSET-September 2011 Presented By Sajid Masood The Knowledge School.
Identify, Develop and Retain High Performers EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT Sidney Cordero Classified - Internal use.
Influencing Others. Leading Change Agenda What does “Managing by Influence truly mean?” Tips to being an effective influencer 5 Influencing Styles 5 Steps.
The Graduate Attributes Project: a perspective on early stakeholder engagement Dr Caroline Walker Queen Mary, University of London.
Internal communication Communication Audits – and what they can do for your organization.
Staff Survey Executive Team Presentation (Annex B) Prepared by: GfK NOP September, Agenda item: 17 Paper no: CM/03/12/14B.
Student Employment Where Learning Happens. Today’s Agenda Overview of Learning Outcomes UWM Employment Experience – What our data says – Student Employment.
TEAM MORALE Team Assignment 12 SOFTWARE MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS K15T2-Team 21.
Organizing Process a course of action, a route, a progression Structure an arrangement, a configuration, a construction.
HSA 171 CAR. 1436/4/26 the process of establishing the orderly use of resources by assigning and coordinating tasks. The organizing process transforms.
Assessment matters: What guides might we use as individuals, teams and institutions to help our assessment endeavours? A presentation to Wolverhampton.
Observation System Kidderminster College January 2012.
Leading Learning in the Social Sciences MARGARET LEAMY National Coordinator Social Sciences Te Tapuae o Rehua Consortium
12 August 2004 Strategic Alignment By Maria Rojas.
Stakeholders and Ethics Organizational Stakeholders Stakeholders: people who have an interest, claim, or stake in an organization Inside stakeholders.
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? The Management Hierarchy
Mentoring A Younger Chemists’ Guide to a Career Essential.
Blueprint for GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. The Minister’s reform agenda is based on the following belief: “All students are entitled to an excellent education.
Chapter 4 Developing and Sustaining a Knowledge Culture
Leadership Development Nova Scotia Public Service
Introduction Motivating others in the workplace is being able to identify the reasons which make employees behave a particular way. In most cases this.
Employee Guide: Becoming an Enterprise Contributor
Maintaining Employee Morale in a Down Economy Strategies for Motivating Your Stars.
Engagement at The Health Trust Presented by Quantum Workplace 2014 Executive Report - The Health Trust.
YOU'VE CHOSEN YOUR TEAM August 1997 HOW DO YOU MAKE IT WORK? BERLING ASSOCIATES C 1997 R. Michael O'Bannon and Berling Associates.
SALESMAX DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.