Presentation on theme: "Leadership Is it important to have good leaders? What makes a good leader? What is the difference between leaders and managers? What types of power do."— Presentation transcript:
Leadership Is it important to have good leaders? What makes a good leader? What is the difference between leaders and managers? What types of power do leaders utilize?
Leadership Managers do things Right –Leaders do the Right Things The act of influencing others to act toward the achievement of a goal Process of providing direction, energizing, others, and obtaining commitment to the leaders cause Leadership involves informal power rather than formal power
Power Ability to influence others ideas, thoughts, or behaviors Types of power –Legitimate –Reward –Coercive –Referent –Expert
n Expert n Referent n Reward n Legitimate n Coercive Most likely response from followers Type of power used by leader Consequences of Using 5 Types of Power CommitmentComplianceResistance 15.2
Leadership Models Trait models-focus on what characteristics make for good leaders Behavioral models-what behaviors do good leaders demonstrate Contingency models-matching of the followers with the right type of leader
Blake & Mouton Mgt. Grid Five styles of leadership based on the concerns of leaders for people or production –Impoverished-low concern for both –Country-club-high concern for people –Produce or perish-high concern for production –Middle of the road-medium concern for both –Team style-high concern for both
The Managerial Grid Model Adapted from Figure 15.3 Concern for production ConcernConcernforforpeoplepeopleConcernConcernforforpeoplepeople 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 987654321987654321 HighLow High Low (5,5) Middle-of-the-road style (9,9) Team style (9,1) Produce or perish style (1,1) Impoverished style (1,9) Country club style 15.4
Contingency Models-how leader acts w/various situational factors Fiedler’s Contingency Model Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model Transactional versus Charismatic
Situational Factors Influencing a Leader’s Effectiveness Adapted from Figure 15.4 Core Competencies Maturity of followers Employee’s needs Decision making Leader- follower relations Types and uses of power Task structure Traits 15.5
Fiedler’s Contingency Model Attempts to match leaders style to demands of each situation Managers should –understand own leadership style –assess the situation –match style to situation Change situation, or change managers..can’t change manager’s style Used Least Preferred Coworker
Fiedler’s Contingency Model GOOD POOR GOOD POOR HIGH LO W HIGH LOW SWSWSWSW Leader- Member Relations Task Structure Position Power Kinds of Leadership Situations Very Favorable Very Unfavorable IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII1 Relationship-oriented managers most effective in IV, V, VI, VII. Task-oriented managers most effective in I, II, III or VIII. Figure 13.3
Outcomes of Fielder Matches task oriented to favorable and unfavorable, and relationship oriented in moderately favorable situations Limited by –Little attention to followers –Manager’s can’t change their style Gave more attention to leadership situations
Hersey & Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Directive, Supportive styles based on follower readiness Readiness-followers ability to set and attain moderately difficult task-related goals, and willingness to accept responsibility to attain them Telling, Selling, Supporting, and Delegating
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model Follower Readiness Mature Immature Relationship Behavior (Supportive Behavior) R2R1R3R4 S4S1 S3S2 Moderate LowHigh High Relationship and Low Task D E L E G A T I N P A R T I C I P A T I N G S E L L I N G T E L L I N G High Task and High Relationship Low Relationship and Low Task High Task and Low Relationship G Task Behavior (Directive Behavior) HighLow High Low 15.7
Slide 12.4 Contrast Between Transactional and Charismatic Leadership DIMENSION TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Primary sources of powerReward, legitimate, expertReferent and reward Basis of follower motivation Performance goals for followers Emotional attachment to goals Expected followers’ behavior Follower commitment to leader and vision Impression management tactics Extrinsic/economic Narrow, quantitative, specific to position Low Obey rules and regulations Low to moderate Low use Intrinsic/emotional Broad, qualitative, specific to leader and vision High Developed through norms and group pressures High High use
Transactional Leadership Involves managers using the reward and coercive power to encourage high performance. Managers who push subordinates to change but do not seem to change themselves are transactional. The transactional manager does not have the “vision” of the Transformational leader.
Transformational Leaders –Transformational leaders are charismatic and have a vision of how good things can be. They are excited and clearly communicate this to subordinates. –Transformational leaders openly share information with workers. Everyone is aware of problems and the need for change. Empowers workers to help with solutions. –Transformational leaders engage in development of workers. Manager works hard to help them build skills.
Slide 12.5 Components of the Transformational Leadership Model Transformational Leadership Model * Idealized influence * Inspirational motivation * Intellectual stimulation * Individualized consideration Transactional Leadership Model Charismatic Leadership Model Attribution Leadership Model
Slide 12.6 Definitions of Key Components of the Transformational Leadership Model Inspirational Motivation –Pattern of behaviors and communication that guide followers by providing them with a sense of meaning and challenge in their work. Intellectual Stimulation –Encouragement given to followers to be innovative and creative. Idealized Influence –Behaviors of transformational leaders that followers strive to emulate or mirror. Individualized Consideration –Special attention paid by a transformational leader to each follower’s needs for achievement and growth.
Slide 12.8 Do Leaders Matter? Leadership Irrelevance –Leadership may be irrelevant for many organizational outcomes. Leadership Substitutes –Leader success depends on the characteristics of the followers, team, situation, and organization. Each can act as a substitute for leader behavior.
Leader-Substitute Model –Leadership substitute: acts in the place of a leader and makes leadership unnecessary. Possible substitutes can be found: Characteristics of Subordinates: their skills, experience, motivation. Characteristics of context: the extent to which work is interesting and fun. Worker empowerment or Self-managed work teams reduce leadership needs. –Managers need to be aware that they do not always need to directly exert influence over workers.