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MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure.

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Presentation on theme: "MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure."— Presentation transcript:

1 MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure

2 MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment (1-10 years) Exploration - Geophysics Exploration - Drilling (1/10) Geology - Analytical and Mineralogical Assessment Economic Feasibility Assessment (1/10) Orebody Modeling (1/10) Mine Planning and Metallurgical Testwork

3 3-D Orebody Model for Mine Planning INCO's Research Mine at Sudbury, Ontario

4 Underground LHD Campbell Mine, Ontario

5 Remote-LHD Olympic Dam Mine, Australia

6 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 2 – Construction (0.5-2 years ) Mine –Shaft-sinking & tunnel/stope development (U/G) –Adit & tunnel/stope development (mountain-top) –Top soil removal, key-cut, haul road development (Open-Pit) Plant –Site Preparation, Foundations, Construction of buildings –Procurement and Installation of Equipment Waste and Tailing Disposal –Site Selection and Preparation –Construction of Initial Coffer Dam for tailing disposal

7 Open Pit Mining Shovel Loading - Porgera Mine, Papua New Guinea

8 Strip Mining Coal Mine Shovel-Truck Operation

9 200 T Haulage Truck

10 Open Pits are Colorful Florida Phosphate Mining

11 Diamond Pipe Deposit

12 Ekati Diamond Mine Kimberlite Pipe Deposit

13 What its all about at Ekati! Diamonds are forever!

14 Canadian Diamonds

15 Polar Diamond Certificate

16 Ekati's Polar Diamond

17 Open Pit Mine Bingham Canyon Mine

18 Mill Complex Bingham Canyon Mill

19 Secondary Crushing Plant

20 Grinding Mills Bingham Canyon Grinding Mills

21 Grinding Mills

22 Mill Control Room Carlin Mine, Nevada

23 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 3 - Operation ( years ) Mine –Blast, Load, Haul, Dump –Transport (hoist, convey, truck, rail), Stockpile –Safely Store Waste (on site or in-mine) Mill –Crush, Grind (comminution) –Physical Separation (maybe chemical) (beneficiation) –Thicken and Filter (dewater) –Safely Store Tailing

24 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 3 - Operation ( years ) Waste Disposal –Dump –Contour, Spread top soil –Hydro-seed and plan for final drainage Tailing Disposal –Plan for Lifts as Tailing Dam builds –Control Water Levels –Recover water for recycle –Revegetate dam walls

25 Tailing Dam Reclamation

26 Revegetation Hydro-Seeding a Waste Dump

27 Mine/Mill Complex Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

28 Downstream Processing Mine/mill complex – produces ore or concentrate or unrefined metal/product – product transported by airplane, rail, truck or ship to smelter or refinery – if leaching is used at mine/mill, unrefined metal or final product is produced Smelting –pyrometallurgical processing (multi-stage) roasting to partially remove/control sulfur content melting to separate oxides from sulfides (flux and slag) oxidation to remove sulfur and iron need SO 2 control and slag disposal system

29 Downstream Processing Leaching – hydrometallurgical processing – vat leach, agitation leach, heap leach, in-situ leach – Pressure Oxidation or Biological Leaching –solid/liquid separation or ion adsorption process –solution purification (solvent extraction/ion exchange) –need residue disposal method (dewatering/storage) Refining –electrometallurgical processing electrowinning to recover metals from solution electrorefining to purify unrefined metal treatment of slime deposits for PMs recovery

30 Copper Ores – Concentrating Simplest Copper Flotation Circuit

31 Copper Ores – Concentrating Copper Oxide Processing to final metal

32 Heap Leach Operation Installing a Plastic Membrane Liner

33 Zaldivar Copper Heap Leach

34 Copper – Downstream Processing Kidd-Creek Smelter flowsheet

35 Copper Anode Casting Wheel

36 Downstream Processing Nickel – Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

37 Downstream Processing Nickel – Matte Separation processing

38 Chuquicamata Mine/Mill/Smelter

39 Downstream Processing Bauxite – Al 2 O 3 production

40 Downstream Processing Phosphate ore processing

41 Downstream Processing Uranium Ore processing

42 Uranium Mines - Australia

43 Uranium Resources

44 Copper-Uranium Ore Olympic Dam Mine, Australia

45 Olympic Dam Refinery, Australia

46

47 Downstream Processing Gold processing options

48 Gold Flakes

49 Gold Panning

50 Gold Flakes

51 Grinding and Cyanide Leaching Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

52 Smelting Gold Campbell Mine, Ontario

53 Pouring Slag Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

54 Pouring Gold Bullion Bars

55 What its all about! Gold Bullion

56 Samarco Iron Ore Flowsheet

57 Samarco Iron Ore Concentrator

58 Samarco Iron Ore Pipeline

59 Iron Ore Pellets Malmberget, Norway

60 Downstream Processing Coal processing

61 Downstream Processing Coal processing

62 Downstream Processing Coal processing

63 Downstream Processing Coal processing

64 Downstream Processing Coal processing

65 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 4 - Closure( years ) Mine –Flood Pit –Seal Underground workings –Long-term Acid Rock Drainage plan for waste dumps Mill –Salvage Equipment –Raze Buildings –Contour and reseed site –Long-term ARD plan for tailing dam

66 Sustainability Important Factors –Technical –Economic –Social/Political –Environmental Past mining activities focused on only the first two The latter two have now become equally, if not more important

67 Sustainability A Mine must plan for closure before it starts up A mining company must always consider local communities in all parts of the world As an industry, we must find ways to enhance our image and to influence government decision-making Future methods must reduce the footprint of mining –no more open pits –waste returned to the mine –processing at the face –robotics and remote-mining systems

68 Sustainability The BC Mining Industry must encourage its members to institute vertical integration policies We need to invest in much more value-added processing (i.e. smelting and refining in BC) Downstream manufacturing industries must be encouraged to develop in BC This will provide the necessary systems to begin significant recycling of metals and other materials in the Pacific North-West

69 Sustainability Social/Political Issues –Land Use –Government policies –The Influence of Activism –Environmental concerns –Aboriginal peoples and treaties –Need for jobs and a diversified economy In BC, the Tatsenshini/Windy Craggy decision has had important long-term impact on Mining Similarly, the Delgamuk decision and Nishka Treaty are important to the future of BC's mining industry


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