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Presentation on theme: "MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY"— Presentation transcript:

STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure

STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment (1-10 years) Exploration - Geophysics Exploration - Drilling (1/10) Geology - Analytical and Mineralogical Assessment Economic Feasibility Assessment (1/10) Orebody Modeling (1/10) Mine Planning and Metallurgical Testwork

3 3-D Orebody Model for Mine Planning
INCO's Research Mine at Sudbury, Ontario

4 Underground LHD Campbell Mine, Ontario

5 Remote-LHD Olympic Dam Mine, Australia

6 Mine Life Cycle (continued)
STAGE 2 - Construction( years ) Mine Shaft-sinking & tunnel/stope development (U/G) Adit & tunnel/stope development (mountain-top) Top soil removal, key-cut, haul road development (Open-Pit) Plant Site Preparation, Foundations, Construction of buildings Procurement and Installation of Equipment Waste and Tailing Disposal Site Selection and Preparation Construction of Initial Coffer Dam for tailing disposal

7 Open Pit Mine Bingham Canyon Mine

8 Open Pit Mining Shovel Loading - Porgera Mine, Papua New Guinea

9 Strip Mining Coal Mine Shovel-Truck Operation

10 200 T Haulage Truck

11 Open Pits are Colorful Florida Phosphate Mining

12 Diamond Pipe Deposit

13 Ekati Diamond Mine Kimberlite Pipe Deposit

14 What its all about at Ekati!
Diamonds are forever!

15 Polar Diamond Certificate

16 Ekati's Polar Diamond

17 Mill Complex Bingham Canyon Mill

18 Secondary Crushing Plant

19 Grinding Mills Bingham Canyon Grinding Mills

20 Grinding Mills

21 Mill Control Room Carlin Mine, Nevada

22 Separation Circuit

23 Mine Life Cycle (continued)
STAGE 3 - Operation ( years ) Mine Blast, Load, Haul, Dump Transport (hoist, convey, truck, rail), Stockpile Safely Store Waste (on site or in-mine) Mill Crush, Grind (comminution) Physical Separation (maybe chemical) (beneficiation) Thicken and Filter (dewater) Safely Store Tailing

24 Mine Life Cycle (continued)
STAGE 3 - Operation ( years ) Waste Disposal Dump Contour, Spread top soil Hydro-seed and plan for final drainage Tailing Disposal Plan for Lifts as Tailing Dam builds Control Water Levels Recover water for recycle Revegetate dam walls

25 Revegetation Hydro-Seeding a Waste Dump

26 Tailing Dam Reclamation

27 Mine Life Cycle (continued)
STAGE 4 - Closure( years ) Mine Flood Pit Seal Underground workings Long-term Acid Rock Drainage plan for waste dumps Mill Salvage Equipment Raze Buildings Contour and reseed site Long-term ARD plan for tailing dam

28 Mine/Mill Complex Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

29 Downstream Processing
Mine/mill complex produces ore or concentrate or unrefined metal/product product transported by airplane, rail, truck or ship to smelter or refinery if leaching is used at mine/mill, unrefined metal or final product is produced Smelting pyrometallurgical processing (multi-stage) roasting to partially remove/control sulfur content melting to separate oxides from sulfides (flux and slag) oxidation to remove sulfur and iron need SO2 control and slag disposal system

30 Downstream Processing
Leaching hydrometallurgical processing vat leach, agitation leach, heap leach, in-situ leach Pressure Oxidation or Biological Leaching solid/liquid separation or ion adsorption process solution purification (solvent extraction/ion exchange) need residue disposal method (dewatering/storage) Refining electrometallurgical processing electrowinning to recover metals from solution electrorefining to purify unrefined metal treatment of slime deposits for PMs recovery

31 Downstream Processing
Copper Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

32 Downstream Processing
Copper Oxide copper treatment

33 Heap Leach Operation Installing a Plastic Membrane Liner

34 Zaldivar Copper Heap Leach

35 Downstream Processing
Complex Copper Sulfide ore Multiple-product Circuit

36 Downstream Processing
Copper copper/molybdenum ore

37 Downstream Processing
Copper Mixed Sulfide/Oxide Treatment

38 Downstream Processing
Copper/Gold ore Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

39 Downstream Processing
Gold processing options

40 Downstream Processing
Copper LPF Processing

41 Downstream Processing
Copper Processing Refractory Copper Ores

42 Downstream Processing
Copper/Lead/Zinc processing

43 Downstream Processing
Nickel Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

44 Downstream Processing
Nickel Matte Separation processing

45 Chuquicamata Mine/Mill/Smelter

46 Copper Anode Casting Wheel

47 Downstream Processing
Bauxite Al2O3 production

48 Downstream Processing
Phosphate ore processing

49 Downstream Processing
Uranium Ore processing

50 Copper-Uranium Ore Olympic Dam Mine, Australia

51 Downstream Processing
Coal processing

52 Downstream Processing
Coal processing

53 Downstream Processing
Coal processing

54 Downstream Processing
Coal processing

55 Downstream Processing
Coal processing

56 Sustainability Important Factors
Technical Economic Social/Political Environmental Past mining activities focussed on only the first two The latter two have now become equally, if not more important

57 Gold Flakes

58 Gold Panning

59 Gold Flakes

60 Grinding and Cyanide Leaching
Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

61 Smelting Gold Campbell Mine, Ontario

62 Pouring Slag Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

63 Pouring Gold Bullion Bars

64 What its all about! Gold Bullion

65 Samarco Iron Ore Flowsheet

66 Samarco Iron Ore Concentrator

67 Samarco Iron Ore Pipeline

68 Iron Ore Pellets Malmberget, Norway

69 Sustainability A Mine must plan for closure before it starts up
A mining company must always consider local communities in all parts of the world As an industry, we must find ways to enhance our image and to influence government decision-making Future methods must reduce the footprint of mining no more open pits waste returned to the mine processing at the face robotics and remote-mining systems

70 Sustainability Social/Political Issues
Land Use Government policies The Influence of Activism Environmental concerns Aboriginal peoples and treaties Need for jobs and a diversified economy In BC, the Tatsenshini/Windy Craggy decision has had important long-term impact on Mining Similarly, the Delgamuk decision and Nishka Treaty are important to the future of BC's mining industry

71 Sustainability The BC Mining Industry must encourage its members to institute vertical integration policies We need to invest in much more value-added processing (i.e. smelting and refining in BC) Downstream manufacturing industries must be encouraged to develop in BC This will provide the necessary systems to begin significant recycling of metals and other materials in the Pacific North-West


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