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MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure.

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Presentation on theme: "MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure."— Presentation transcript:

1 MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment STAGE 2 - Construction STAGE 3 - Operation STAGE 4 - Closure

2 MINE LIFE CYCLE, DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, AND SUSTAINABILITY STAGE 1 - Exploration and Assessment (1-10 years) Exploration - Geophysics Exploration - Drilling (1/10) Geology - Analytical and Mineralogical Assessment Economic Feasibility Assessment (1/10) Orebody Modeling (1/10) Mine Planning and Metallurgical Testwork

3 3-D Orebody Model for Mine Planning INCO's Research Mine at Sudbury, Ontario

4 Underground LHD Campbell Mine, Ontario

5 Remote-LHD Olympic Dam Mine, Australia

6 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 2 - Construction( years ) Mine –Shaft-sinking & tunnel/stope development (U/G) –Adit & tunnel/stope development (mountain-top) –Top soil removal, key-cut, haul road development (Open-Pit) Plant –Site Preparation, Foundations, Construction of buildings –Procurement and Installation of Equipment Waste and Tailing Disposal –Site Selection and Preparation –Construction of Initial Coffer Dam for tailing disposal

7 Open Pit Mine Bingham Canyon Mine

8 Open Pit Mining Shovel Loading - Porgera Mine, Papua New Guinea

9 Strip Mining Coal Mine Shovel-Truck Operation

10 200 T Haulage Truck

11 Open Pits are Colorful Florida Phosphate Mining

12 Diamond Pipe Deposit

13 Ekati Diamond Mine Kimberlite Pipe Deposit

14 What its all about at Ekati! Diamonds are forever!

15 Polar Diamond Certificate

16 Ekati's Polar Diamond

17 Mill Complex Bingham Canyon Mill

18 Secondary Crushing Plant

19 Grinding Mills Bingham Canyon Grinding Mills

20 Grinding Mills

21 Mill Control Room Carlin Mine, Nevada

22 Separation Circuit

23 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 3 - Operation ( years ) Mine –Blast, Load, Haul, Dump –Transport (hoist, convey, truck, rail), Stockpile –Safely Store Waste (on site or in-mine) Mill –Crush, Grind (comminution) –Physical Separation (maybe chemical) (beneficiation) –Thicken and Filter (dewater) –Safely Store Tailing

24 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 3 - Operation ( years ) Waste Disposal –Dump –Contour, Spread top soil –Hydro-seed and plan for final drainage Tailing Disposal –Plan for Lifts as Tailing Dam builds –Control Water Levels –Recover water for recycle –Revegetate dam walls

25 Revegetation Hydro-Seeding a Waste Dump

26 Tailing Dam Reclamation

27 Mine Life Cycle (continued) STAGE 4 - Closure( years ) Mine –Flood Pit –Seal Underground workings –Long-term Acid Rock Drainage plan for waste dumps Mill –Salvage Equipment –Raze Buildings –Contour and reseed site –Long-term ARD plan for tailing dam

28 Mine/Mill Complex Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

29 Downstream Processing Mine/mill complex – produces ore or concentrate or unrefined metal/product – product transported by airplane, rail, truck or ship to smelter or refinery – if leaching is used at mine/mill, unrefined metal or final product is produced Smelting –pyrometallurgical processing (multi-stage) roasting to partially remove/control sulfur content melting to separate oxides from sulfides (flux and slag) oxidation to remove sulfur and iron need SO 2 control and slag disposal system

30 Downstream Processing Leaching – hydrometallurgical processing – vat leach, agitation leach, heap leach, in-situ leach – Pressure Oxidation or Biological Leaching –solid/liquid separation or ion adsorption process –solution purification (solvent extraction/ion exchange) –need residue disposal method (dewatering/storage) Refining –electrometallurgical processing electrowinning to recover metals from solution electrorefining to purify unrefined metal treatment of slime deposits for PMs recovery

31 Downstream Processing Copper – Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

32 Downstream Processing Copper – Oxide copper treatment

33 Heap Leach Operation Installing a Plastic Membrane Liner

34 Zaldivar Copper Heap Leach

35 Downstream Processing Complex Copper Sulfide ore – Multiple-product Circuit

36 Downstream Processing Copper –copper/molybdenum ore

37 Downstream Processing Copper – Mixed Sulfide/Oxide Treatment

38 Downstream Processing Copper/Gold ore – Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

39 Downstream Processing Gold processing options

40 Downstream Processing Copper – LPF Processing

41 Downstream Processing Copper – Processing Refractory Copper Ores

42 Downstream Processing Copper/Lead/Zinc processing

43 Downstream Processing Nickel – Typical Mine/Mill Treatment

44 Downstream Processing Nickel – Matte Separation processing

45 Chuquicamata Mine/Mill/Smelter

46 Copper Anode Casting Wheel

47 Downstream Processing Bauxite – Al 2 O 3 production

48 Downstream Processing Phosphate ore processing

49 Downstream Processing Uranium Ore processing

50 Copper-Uranium Ore Olympic Dam Mine, Australia

51 Downstream Processing Coal processing

52 Downstream Processing Coal processing

53 Downstream Processing Coal processing

54 Downstream Processing Coal processing

55 Downstream Processing Coal processing

56 Sustainability Important Factors –Technical –Economic –Social/Political –Environmental Past mining activities focussed on only the first two The latter two have now become equally, if not more important

57 Gold Flakes

58 Gold Panning

59 Gold Flakes

60 Grinding and Cyanide Leaching Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

61 Smelting Gold Campbell Mine, Ontario

62 Pouring Slag Musslewhite Mine, Ontario

63 Pouring Gold Bullion Bars

64 What its all about! Gold Bullion

65 Samarco Iron Ore Flowsheet

66 Samarco Iron Ore Concentrator

67 Samarco Iron Ore Pipeline

68 Iron Ore Pellets Malmberget, Norway

69 Sustainability A Mine must plan for closure before it starts up A mining company must always consider local communities in all parts of the world As an industry, we must find ways to enhance our image and to influence government decision-making Future methods must reduce the footprint of mining –no more open pits –waste returned to the mine –processing at the face –robotics and remote-mining systems

70 Sustainability Social/Political Issues –Land Use –Government policies –The Influence of Activism –Environmental concerns –Aboriginal peoples and treaties –Need for jobs and a diversified economy In BC, the Tatsenshini/Windy Craggy decision has had important long-term impact on Mining Similarly, the Delgamuk decision and Nishka Treaty are important to the future of BC's mining industry

71 Sustainability The BC Mining Industry must encourage its members to institute vertical integration policies We need to invest in much more value-added processing (i.e. smelting and refining in BC) Downstream manufacturing industries must be encouraged to develop in BC This will provide the necessary systems to begin significant recycling of metals and other materials in the Pacific North-West

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