4 Mirrors In the Brain Bandura’s Experiments Applications of Observational Learning Prosocial Observational Learning Antisocial Observational Learning
5 Learning by Observation Conditioning principles don’t explain all learning. Higher animals, especially humans, can learn without direct experience, through observational learning, by observing and imitating others.
The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward. We learn all kinds of behaviors through modeling – observing and imitating a specific behavior. 6 Learning by Observation
7 Mirror Neurons Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons – frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so – in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning. PET scans of different brain areas shows that humans have a mirror neuron system that supports empathy and imitation.
8 Imitation Onset Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart. Meltzoff, A.N. (1998). Imitation of televised models by infants. Child Development, Photos Courtesy of A.N. Meltzoff and M. Hanuk.
9 Bandura's Experiments Bandura's Bobo doll study (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments. Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University
10 Applications of Observational Learning Bandura’s studies show that models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have good or bad effects. Businesses use behavior modeling to train to train communications, sales, and customer service skills. Trainees learn faster when both they are both told and shown skills.
11 Positive Observational Learning Positive models can have good effects by modeling prosocial (positive, constructive, helpful) behavior. Models are most effective when their words and actions are consistent. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
12 Antisocial Observational Learning Observational learning can also have antisocial effects. Television, movies, and video games are a powerful source of observational learning and studies have found a link between viewing violent programs and aggressive behavior – the violence-viewing effect.
13 Antisocial Observational Learning The violence-viewing effect stems from two factors – imitation and desensitization. Children modeling after pro wrestlers Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Glassman/ The Image Works