4Bandura’s Experiments Mirrors In the BrainBandura’s ExperimentsApplications of Observational LearningProsocial Observational LearningAntisocial Observational Learning
5Learning by Observation Conditioning principles don’t explain all learning.Higher animals, especially humans, can learn without direct experience, through observational learning, by observing and imitating others.Preview Question 1: What is observational learning, and how is it enabled by mirror neurons?
6Learning by Observation The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward.We learn all kinds of behaviors through modeling – observing and imitating a specific behavior.
7Mirror NeuronsNeuroscientists discovered mirror neurons – frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so – in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning.PET scans of different brain areas shows that humans have a mirror neuron system that supports empathy and imitation.
8Imitation OnsetLearning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart.Child Development, Photos Courtesy of A.N. Meltzoff and M. Hanuk.Meltzoff, A.N. (1998). Imitation of televised models by infants.
9Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University Bandura's ExperimentsBandura's Bobo doll study (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments.Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University
10Applications of Observational Learning Bandura’s studies show that models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have good or bad effects.Businesses use behavior modeling to train to train communications, sales, and customer service skills. Trainees learn faster when both they are both told and shown skills.
11Positive Observational Learning Positive models can have good effects by modeling prosocial (positive, constructive, helpful) behavior . Models are most effective when their words and actions are consistent.Preview Question 2: What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling?Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
12Antisocial Observational Learning Observational learning can also have antisocial effects.Television, movies, and video games are a powerful source of observational learning and studies have found a link between viewing violent programs and aggressive behavior – the violence-viewing effect.
13Antisocial Observational Learning The violence-viewing effect stems from two factors – imitation and desensitization.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksGlassman/ The Image WorksChildren modeling after pro wrestlers