Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 (F): Learning By Observation"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 6 (F): Learning By Observation Mr. McCormickA.P. Psychology
2Do-Now (In Journal)What is a behavior that you possess that you may have learned through observation?Who did you learn it from?Why do you think it became reinforced?
3Learning By Observation Observational Learning:Learning by observing othersAlso called Social LearningAlbert BanduraModeling:The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
4Learning By Observation Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others.The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward.
5Observational Learning and Language How do you pronounce the word “orange?”
7Observational Learning and Language Have you ever traveled to another country, or another region of the US, and found yourself speaking and/or acting similar to the people of that region?Why do you think your speech and/or behavior changed?
8Mirror Neurons Mirror Neurons: Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing soThe brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy
9Learning by observation begins early in life. Imitation OnsetLearning by observation begins early in life.This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV, in pulling a toy apart.
10Imitation in ChildrenCan you remember any ways that you imitated others (parents, older siblings, cousins, etc.) as a child?Can you remember any ways that your younger siblings, cousins, etc. imitated you?
11Bandura’s “Bobo Doll” Experiment Bandura's “Bobo Doll” Experiment (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments.
12Applications of Observational Learning Unfortunately, Bandura’s studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood, or TV) may have antisocial effects.
13Applications of Observational Learning Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression.
14Applications of Observational Learning What are some TV shows, video games, or movies that you were exposed to as a child that modeled aggressive behavior?
15Applications of Observational Learning Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression.Children modeling after pro wrestlers
16Applications of Observational Learning Fortunately, prosocial (positive, helpful) models may have prosocial effects.
17Applications of Observational Learning Prosocial Behavior:Positive, constructive, helpful behaviorThe opposite of antisocial behavior
18ReviewWhat is Observational Learning? How does it differ from Classical and Operant Conditioning?What are mirror neurons and how do they enable empathy and imitation?What did Albert Bandura conclude about observational learning through his “Bobo Doll” Experiment?What are prosocial and antisocial behavior and what are some ways that they are modeled?