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Unit 6 (F): Learning By Observation

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1 Unit 6 (F): Learning By Observation
Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology

2 Do-Now (In Journal) What is a behavior that you possess that you may have learned through observation? Who did you learn it from? Why do you think it became reinforced?

3 Learning By Observation
Observational Learning: Learning by observing others Also called Social Learning Albert Bandura Modeling: The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

4 Learning By Observation
Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others. The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward.

5 Observational Learning and Language
How do you pronounce the word “orange?”

6 Observational Learning and Language

7 Observational Learning and Language
Have you ever traveled to another country, or another region of the US, and found yourself speaking and/or acting similar to the people of that region? Why do you think your speech and/or behavior changed?

8 Mirror Neurons Mirror Neurons:
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy

9 Learning by observation begins early in life.
Imitation Onset Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV, in pulling a toy apart.

10 Imitation in Children Can you remember any ways that you imitated others (parents, older siblings, cousins, etc.) as a child? Can you remember any ways that your younger siblings, cousins, etc. imitated you?

11 Bandura’s “Bobo Doll” Experiment
Bandura's “Bobo Doll” Experiment (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments.

12 Applications of Observational Learning
Unfortunately, Bandura’s studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood, or TV) may have antisocial effects.

13 Applications of Observational Learning
Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression.

14 Applications of Observational Learning
What are some TV shows, video games, or movies that you were exposed to as a child that modeled aggressive behavior?

15 Applications of Observational Learning
Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers

16 Applications of Observational Learning
Fortunately, prosocial (positive, helpful) models may have prosocial effects.

17 Applications of Observational Learning
Prosocial Behavior: Positive, constructive, helpful behavior The opposite of antisocial behavior

18 Review What is Observational Learning? How does it differ from Classical and Operant Conditioning? What are mirror neurons and how do they enable empathy and imitation? What did Albert Bandura conclude about observational learning through his “Bobo Doll” Experiment? What are prosocial and antisocial behavior and what are some ways that they are modeled?

19 Homework Unit 6 Test: “Learning” Chapter 8 Outline: “Memory”

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