Presentation on theme: "Observational Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Observational Learning “We are, in truth, more than half what we are by imitation.” – LordChesterfield“Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.” – Albert BanduraHigher level animals do not need to learn through direct experience, they can learn indirectly from observing and imitating others.
2 Observation Learning Observation Modeling Memes Imitation Albert Bandura and the Bobo doll study
3 Observational Learning Learning by observing and watching others (the model)The Model - the person whose behavior the subject watches and imitatesModeling - The process of observing and imitating a specific behaviorSee an example of my daughter copying her mom feeding the baby. Click HERE.Memes - ideas, fashions and habits (cultural elements) passed on by imitation. Example: Catch-phrases, ceremonies, foods, traditions, vices, and fads all spread by copying one another.
4 Albert Bandura ( )American psychologist who has done major studies in observational learningStudies the consequences a model has on subjectsBobo Doll experiments
5 Bobo Doll ExperimentsChildren watched an adult model show aggressive behavior toward a Bobo dollThree experimental conditions:The model was praised.The model was punished.The model received no consequences for the aggressive behavior.
6 Vicarious LearningLearning by seeing the consequence of another’s behaviorBandura said that reinforcement is not essential for learning to occur but the expectation of reinforcement affects the performance of what has been learned.
8 Bandura’s Bobo DollsWatch “Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment” Video #11 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology.
9 Modeling Requirements Bandura said 4 cognitive processes are used in observational learningMust pay attention to the other person’s behavior.Must remember the other person’s behavior.Must transform the memory into actions that you are capable of reproducing.Must have some motivation for you to imitate behavior.
13 Antisocial/Prosocial Behavior Antisocial behavior - negative, destructive, abusive, unhelpful behaviorProsocial behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behaviorBoth types of behavior can be modeled effectively.How might TV programs effect the way we behave? (see pg in Hockenbury)
14 Famous last words??? Do what I say, not what I do— This will teach you to hit your brother—Why do you do that, you know you get in trouble for it—MSOffice Clip art