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Tone Allophones Answers ː Second Tone First Tone H,Hk ͡ pák ͡ pá‘field’H,Mrír̃ũ ̄ ‘pain’H,Lbúrù‘news’ M,H ɔ̄ g ͡ bá‘stick’M,M ɔ̄ b ɛ̄ ‘knife’M,L.

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Presentation on theme: "Tone Allophones Answers ː Second Tone First Tone H,Hk ͡ pák ͡ pá‘field’H,Mrír̃ũ ̄ ‘pain’H,Lbúrù‘news’ M,H ɔ̄ g ͡ bá‘stick’M,M ɔ̄ b ɛ̄ ‘knife’M,L."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tone Allophones Answers ː Second Tone First Tone H,Hk ͡ pák ͡ pá‘field’H,Mrír̃ũ ̄ ‘pain’H,Lbúrù‘news’ M,H ɔ̄ g ͡ bá‘stick’M,M ɔ̄ b ɛ̄ ‘knife’M,L a ̄ k ͡ pò‘sack’ L,Hàk ͡ pá‘arm’L,Màga ̄ ‘chair’L,L àg ͡ bà‘adult’ There is complete distribution of tone in nouns. There are no tone allophones or tone neutralization. HML HXXX MXXX LXXX

2 Tone Allophones Review If we find a gap in our tone distribution chart, what does that tell us?

3 Tone Allophones Review If we find a gap in our tone distribution chart, what does that tell us? There could be a tone allophone or tone neutralization.

4 Tone Distribution in CHUMBURUNG CVCV nouns Second Tone First Tone [4 4][4 4 p] H,Hf ʊ r ɪ ‘deer’ H,L ?k ɪ - ɲ ap ʊ ‘breast’ [2 3][2 a] L,H ?k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ L,Lkeri ‘lizard’ The gaps show us where the allophones occur. The word k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ with L,M tone has underlying L,H tone. (M is an allophone of H). The word k ɪ - ɲ ap ʊ ‘breast’ with H,H-falling tone in the root has underlying H,L tone. It comes in the predictable environment where underlying L follows H. HL HX LX

5 Distribution of Tone phoneme combinations in ‘BELI Sudan CVCV nouns Second Tone First Tone [4 4][4 3] [4 a] H,H ɲɔ r ɔ ‘poison’H,M h ɔ l ɔ ‘buttock’ H,L g ͡ baⁿd ̪ a ‘cassava’ [3 4] [3 3] M,H baja ‘wing’ M,Mce ɾ e ‘star’M,L [2 4][2 3] [2 a] L,H kab ɪ ‘roof’ L,M g ͡ b ɛ t ̪ɪ ‘child’L,L m ͡ bala ‘song’ The gap of M,L shows us neutralization. The contrast between H and M is neutralized before L. In this environment, only H and L occurs. HML HXXX MXX LXXX

6 Steps for finding how to write differences in meaning made by tone (3 of 3) 17.Study the Tone System A. Decide how many tone melodies there are B. Decide how many underlying level tone phonemes (contrastive tone heights) C. Find the tone phoneme distribution D. Predict the environment for any tone neutralization and tone allophones E. Find how to predict tone changes across morpheme and word boundaries F. Find differences in words and grammar made only by tone G. Find the functional load of tone H. Decide if/how to write tone in the orthography.

7 Steps for finding how to write differences in meaning made by tone (3 of 3) 17.Study the Tone System D. Find how to predict tone changes across morpheme and word boundaries 1. Find how the contrastive tone melodies change when the same morpheme is added to each. 2. Find how the contrastive tone melodies change when the same words with High or Low tone are placed before or after each melody.

8 Common Tone Processes Across Morpheme and Word Boundaries High tone spreading Tone lowering Tone raising Tone dissimilation Automatic downstep (downdrift) Non-automatic downstep (downstep)

9 CVCV Tone Melodies with Suffixes Added CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) CVCV has 3 contrastive tone melodies when said by themselves /H/[4 4][2 3 3] f ʊ r ɪ ‘deer’ a-f ʊ r ɪ ‘PL-deer’ /LH/[2 3][2 2 3] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ a-k ɔ t ɪ ‘PL-monkey’ /L/[2 a][4 4 p] keri ‘lizard’ə-keri‘PL-lizard’

10 CVCV Tone Melodies with Suffixes Added CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) CVCV has 3 contrastive tone melodies when said by themselves /H/[4 4][2 3 3] f ʊ r ɪ ‘deer’ a-f ʊ r ɪ ‘PL-deer’ /LH/[2 3][2 2 3] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ a-k ɔ t ɪ ‘PL-monkey’ /L/[2 a][4 4 p] keri ‘lizard’ə-keri‘PL-lizard’ High Tone Lowering / 2 4 / [2 3] /H/  [M] after Lin roots k ɔ t ɪ  k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ /2 4 4/ [2 3 3] across morpheme boundaries a-f ʊ r ɪ  af ʊ r ɪ ‘PL- deer’

11 CVCV Tone Melodies with Suffixes Added CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) CVCV has 3 contrastive tone melodies when said by themselves /H/[4 4][2 3 3] f ʊ r ɪ ‘deer’ a-f ʊ r ɪ ‘PL-deer’ /LH/[2 3][2 2 3] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ a-k ɔ t ɪ ‘PL-monkey’ /L/[2 a][4 4 p] keri ‘lizard’ə-keri‘PL-lizard’ High Tone Rightward Spreading /L/  /H falling/ after H /2 4 2/ [2 3 i] at end of words in roots a-dab ɔ ŋ  adab ɔ ŋ ‘PL- cheek’ /L-H,L/ [L-M,M falling] /4 2 2 / [4 4 p] across morpheme boundaries ə-keri  əkeri ‘PL-lizard’ /H-L,L/ [H,H,H falling]

12 CVCV Tone Melodies with Suffixes Added CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) CVCV has 3 contrastive tone melodies when said by themselves /H/[4 4][2 3 3] f ʊ r ɪ ‘deer’ a-f ʊ r ɪ ‘PL-deer’ /LH/[2 3][2 2 3] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ a-k ɔ t ɪ ‘PL-monkey’ /L/[2 a][4 4 p] keri ‘lizard’ə-keri‘PL-lizard’ High Tone Dissimilation/4 4 4/ [2 3 3] /H/  [L] before + H or LHa-f ʊ r ɪ  af ʊ r ɪ ‘PL-deer’  [H] elsewhere/4 2 4 / [2 2 3] a-k ɔ t ɪ  ak ɔ t ɪ ‘PL-monkey’ Not in roots;/4 2 2 / [4 4 p] Only across morpheme boundaries ə-keri  əkeri ‘PL- lizard’

13 Steps for finding how to write differences in meaning made by tone (3 of 3) 17.Study the Tone System D. Find how to predict tone changes across morpheme and word boundaries 1. Find how the contrastive tone melodies change when the same morpheme is added to each. 2. Find how the contrastive tone melodies change when the same words with High or Low tone are placed before or after each melody.

14 FRAME ː A phrase with a blank (____) for substituting words. Make frames as follows ː 1)High after 3) High before 2)Low after4) Low before [4 4] [4 4] 1) ____ f ʊ r ɪ ‘ ____’s deer’ 3) f ʊ r ɪ ____ ‘deer’s ____’ [2 a] [2 a] 2) ____ keri ‘ ____’s lizard’ 4) keri ____ ‘lizard’s ____’

15 CVCV Tone Melodies with High and Low Before and After CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) High Tone Lowering /2 2/ / 4 4 / [ ] /H/  [M] after L wad ͡ʒ a f ʊ r ɪ  wad ͡ʒ f ʊ r ɪ ‘cloth’s deer’ across word boundaries /L,L/ /H,H/ [L,L M,M] Isolation 1)High after2)Low after3)High before4)Low before [4 4] ____ f ʊ r ɪ ‘ ____’s deer’ [2 a] ____ keri ‘ ____’s lizard’ [4 4] f ʊ r ɪ ____ ‘deer’s ____’ [2 a] keri ____ ‘lizard’s ____’ [4 4 ] dap ʊ ‘hawk’ [ ] dap ʊ f ʊ r ɪ ‘hawk’s deer’ [4 4 4 a] dapu keri ‘hawk’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ɪ dap ʊ ‘deer’s hawk’ [ ] keri dap ʊ ‘lizard’s hawk’ [2 3 ] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ [ ] k ɔ t ɪ f ʊ r ɪ ‘monkey’s deer’ [ ] k ɔ ti keri ‘monkey’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ [ ] ker ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘lizard’s monkey’ [2 a ] wad ͡ʒ a ‘clothe’ [ ] wad ͡ʒ a f ʊ r ɪ ‘cloth’s deer’ [2 2 2 a] wad ͡ʒ a keri ‘cloth’s lizard’ [4 4 4 a] f ʊ r ɪ wad ͡ʒ a ‘deer’s cloth’ [2 2 2 a] keri wad ͡ʒ a ‘lizard’s cloth’

16 CVCV Tone Melodies with High and Low Before and After CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) Automatic downstep /2 4/ / 4 2 / [ ] /H/  [Lowered H] after L k ɔ ti keri  k ɔ ti keri ‘monkey’s lizard’ /L/  [Lowered L] after Lowered H /L,H//H,L/ [L,Lowered H, Lowered L] Isolation 1)High after2)Low after3)High before4)Low before [4 4] ____ f ʊ r ɪ ‘ ____’s deer’ [2 a] ____ keri ‘ ____’s lizard’ [4 4] f ʊ r ɪ ____ ‘deer’s ____’ [2 a] keri ____ ‘lizard’s ____’ [4 4 ] dap ʊ ‘hawk’ [ ] dap ʊ f ʊ r ɪ ‘hawk’s deer’ [4 4 4 a] dapu keri ‘hawk’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ɪ dap ʊ ‘deer’s hawk’ [ ] keri dap ʊ ‘lizard’s hawk’ [2 3 ] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ [ ] k ɔ t ɪ f ʊ r ɪ ‘monkey’s deer’ [ ] k ɔ ti keri ‘monkey’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ [ ] ker ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘lizard’s monkey’ [2 a ] wad ͡ʒ a ‘clothe’ [ ] wad ͡ʒ a f ʊ r ɪ ‘cloth’s deer’ [2 2 2 a] wad ͡ʒ a keri ‘cloth’s lizard’ [4 4 4 a] f ʊ r ɪ wad ͡ʒ a ‘deer’s cloth’ [2 2 2 a] keri wad ͡ʒ a ‘lizard’s cloth’

17 Automatic Downstep CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) [ ] nana m ɪ nana m ɪ nana grandfather his grandfather his grandfather ‘grandfather’s grandfather’s grandfather’ [ ] nana nana nana grandfather grandfather grandfather ‘grandfather’s grandfather’s grandfather’

18 AUTOMATIC DOWNSTEP (Downdrift): High after Low is lower than any previous High; Low after High is lower than any previous Low. CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) /23/ /23/ /23/ [ ] nana nana nana  nana nana nana ‘grandfather’s grandfather’s grandfather’ /L,H//L,H//L,H/ [L, Lowered H Lowered L, Lowered H Lowered L, Lowered H]

19 CVCV Tone Melodies with High and Low Before and After CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) High Tone Rightward Spreading/4 4/ /2 2/ [4 4 4(2)a] /L/  /H/ after Hdapu keri  dapu keri ‘hawk’s lizard’ across word boundaries/H,H/ /L,L/ [H,H H,L falling] Isolation 1)High after2)Low after3)High before4)Low before [4 4] ____ f ʊ r ɪ ‘ ____’s deer’ [2 a] ____ keri ‘ ____’s lizard’ [4 4] f ʊ r ɪ ____ ‘deer’s ____’ [2 a] keri ____ ‘lizard’s ____’ [4 4 ] dap ʊ ‘hawk’ [ ] dap ʊ f ʊ r ɪ ‘hawk’s deer’ [4 4 4 a] dapu keri ‘hawk’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ɪ dap ʊ ‘deer’s hawk’ [ ] keri dap ʊ ‘lizard’s hawk’ [2 3 ] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ [ ] k ɔ t ɪ f ʊ r ɪ ‘monkey’s deer’ [ ] k ɔ ti keri ‘monkey’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ [ ] ker ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘lizard’s monkey’ [2 a ] wad ͡ʒ a ‘clothe’ [ ] wad ͡ʒ a f ʊ r ɪ ‘cloth’s deer’ [2 2 2 a] wad ͡ʒ a keri ‘cloth’s lizard’ [4 4 4 a] f ʊ r ɪ wad ͡ʒ a ‘deer’s cloth’ [2 2 2 a] keri wad ͡ʒ a ‘lizard’s cloth’

20 FLOATING TONE: Tone that is known to be in the underlying form, but not heard in the word. Can be ‘bumped off’ by High tone spreading. CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) /4 4/ /2 2/ [4 4 4(2)a] dapu keri  dapu keri ‘hawk’s lizard’ /H,H/ /L,L/ [H,H H,L falling] (Floating L)

21 CVCV Tone Melodies with High and Low Before and After CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) Non-Automatic Downstep /4 4/ /2 4/ [4 4 4(2)3] /H/  [Lowered H] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ  f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ after floating L /H,H//L,H/ [H,H H,Lowered H] Isolation 1)High after2)Low after3)High before4)Low before [4 4] ____ f ʊ r ɪ ‘ ____’s deer’ [2 a] ____ keri ‘ ____’s lizard’ [4 4] f ʊ r ɪ ____ ‘deer’s ____’ [2 a] keri ____ ‘lizard’s ____’ [4 4 ] dap ʊ ‘hawk’ [ ] dap ʊ f ʊ r ɪ ‘hawk’s deer’ [4 4 4 a] dapu keri ‘hawk’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ɪ dap ʊ ‘deer’s hawk’ [ ] keri dap ʊ ‘lizard’s hawk’ [2 3 ] k ɔ t ɪ ‘monkey’ [ ] k ɔ t ɪ f ʊ r ɪ ‘monkey’s deer’ [ ] k ɔ ti keri ‘monkey’s lizard’ [ ] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ [ ] ker ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘lizard’s monkey’ [2 a ] wad ͡ʒ a ‘clothe’ [ ] wad ͡ʒ a f ʊ r ɪ ‘cloth’s deer’ [2 2 2 a] wad ͡ʒ a keri ‘cloth’s lizard’ [4 4 4 a] f ʊ r ɪ wad ͡ʒ a ‘deer’s cloth’ [2 2 2 a] keri wad ͡ʒ a ‘lizard’s cloth’

22 Because of High tone spreading CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) Non-Automatic Downstep /4 4/ /2 4/ [4 4 4(2)3] /H/  [Lowered H] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ  f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ after floating L /H,H//L,H/ [H,H H,Lowered H] Because of vowel deletion KENYANG (Snider) /4(2) 4/ [4(2)3] ba-( )-pa  bapa ‘they-PRES- spit’ /H(L)H/ [H,Lowered H]

23 AUTOMATIC DOWNSTEP (Downdrift): High after Low is lower than any previous High; Low after High is lower than any previous Low. CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) /2 4/ / 4 2 / [ ] k ɔ ti keri  k ɔ ti keri ‘monkey’s lizard’ /L,H//H,L/ [L, Lowered H, Lowered H, Lowered L] NON-AUTOMATIC DOWNSTEP (Downstep): High after floating Low is lower than any previous High. Same process as automatic downstep except the Low tone is floating. CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) /4 4/ /2 4/ [4 4 4(2)3] f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ  f ʊ r ʊ k ɔ t ɪ ‘deer’s monkey’ /H,H//L,H/ [H,H H,Lowered H]

24 Class Assignmentː 1.Write a rule to predict the tone changes across the morpheme boundary in the words below. Give an example. Root Suffix Tone/Tone/Noun SGNoun PL /H/-ə́g /H/kə́skə́s-ə́g‘sorghum’ /M/-ə́g /H/fa ̄ nd ̪ fə ̄ nd ̪ -ə́g‘cheek’ /L/-ə́g /H/bə̀ ɲɟ bə̀ ɲɟ -ə ̄ g‘pulp’ /H/- ɛɛ̄ g /HM/lú ɲ lú ɲ -íi ̄ g‘boomerang’ /M/- ɛɛ̄ g /HM/ra ̄ a ̄ jra ̄ a ̄ j- ɛɛ̄ g‘war’ /L/- ɛɛ̄ g /HM/à ɔ ̀là ɔ ̀l- ɛ̄ɛ̄ g‘brother’ Reading Assignment Tone Phenomena pg Tone Analysis for Field Linguists (5.1) pg


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