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Stress Versus Tone Assignment Answers ː Yoruba is a tone lanɡuaɡe for the followinɡ reasons: 1.There is more than one high tone in some words. [k ͡ p ɛ.

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Presentation on theme: "Stress Versus Tone Assignment Answers ː Yoruba is a tone lanɡuaɡe for the followinɡ reasons: 1.There is more than one high tone in some words. [k ͡ p ɛ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stress Versus Tone Assignment Answers ː Yoruba is a tone lanɡuaɡe for the followinɡ reasons: 1.There is more than one high tone in some words. [k ͡ p ɛ ́l ɛ ́] ‘sorry’, [kíkìrí] ‘little’, [a ̄ búlí] ‘village’ 2.There are all High or all Low tones in some words. [k ͡ p ɛ ́l ɛ ́] ‘sorry’, [àg ͡ bà] ‘adult’ 3.High tone is not limited to a certain syllable in words. [kíkìrí] ‘little’, [a ̄ búlí] ‘village’ 4.There is contrast of tone in analogous environments. [f ɛ ́] ‘to want’[f i ̄ ] ‘to put’[f ɔ ̀] ‘to wash’ 5.On the final syllable of some words said by themselves, there is High tone. [àk ͡ pá] ‘arm’, [a ̄ búlí] ‘village’

2 Stress Versus Tone Review What’s the difference between a Stress Language and a Tone Language?

3 In a stress language, pitch, length, or loudness combine to make one syllable per word stand out more than others. In a tone language, various levels of pitch are phonemes that show the difference in meaning for words. SWAHILI áchà‘to leave’ àbúdù‘to worship ùgálì‘porridge’ ùtífù‘obedience’ àlàsírì‘afternoon’ àsùbúhì ‘morning’ BONGO Sudan k ɪ ́d ɪ ‘vein’ k ɪ ̀d ɪ ̀‘snake type’ kágá‘tree’ kàdà‘sun’ tàgá‘evening’ b ʊɾʊ ́k ʊ ‘ashes’ p ɪ ̀l ɛ ̀g ʊ ̀‘bird type’ màg ʊ ́bá ‘worm’

4 How does phonology help literacy development? 3. Sometimes people choose to write two words the same, even though they pronounce them differently in tone. Phonology helps us know when this is a good choice and when important meaning will be lost by this choice.

5 Steps for finding how to write differences in meaning made by tone (3 of 3) 15.Decide if it is a stress language or tone language 16.Study the Stress System 17.Study the Tone System

6 Segment phonemeTone phoneme (Toneme) Segment allophoneTone allophone (Allotone) Contrast of analogous environments for segments Contrasts of analogous environments for tones Distribution of segment phonemes Distribution of tone phonemes Neutralization of segment phonemes Neutralization of tone phonemes

7 Steps for finding how to write differences in meaning made by tone (3 of 3) 17.Study the Tone System A. Decide how many tone melodies there are B. Decide how many underlying level tone phonemes (contrastive tone heights) there are C. Find the tone phoneme distribution D. Predict the environment for any tone neutralization and tone allophones E. Find how to predict tone changes across morpheme and word boundaries F. Find differences in grammar made by tone G. Find the functional load of tone H. Decide if/how to write tone in the orthography.

8 MENDE (From Leben 1978 ː 186) Tone melodies CVCVCVCVCVCV /H/[4][4 4][4 4 4] k ɔ ‘war’p ɛ l ɛ ‘house’hawama ‘waistline’ /L/[1][1 1][1 1 1] /k ͡ pa ‘debt’b ɛ l ɛ ‘trousers’k ͡ pakali‘chair’ /HL/[p][4 1][4 1 1] m ͡ bu ‘owl’n ͡ g ɪ la ‘dog’ felama‘junction’ /LH/[P][1 4][1 4 4] m ͡ ba ‘rice’fande ‘cotton’n ͡ davula‘sling’ /LHL/[Pp][1 p][1 4 1] m ͡ ba ‘companion’ ɲ aha ‘woman’nikili‘groundnut’

9 TONE MELODY : The tone pattern placed on a morpheme no matter how many syllables it has. We want to find how many tone melodies there are in a language. Tone melodies placed on morphemes are more important than tone placed on individual syllables. Speakers are aware of which melody is on which word, but not usually aware of which tone is on which syllable.

10 CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) Tone Rule Verbs with CV syllable structure always have phonetic Low-falling tone when said by themselves. / 4/ (/H/)[a] w ʊ  w ʊ ‘chew’ /1/ (/L/)[a] ŋu  ŋu‘see’ Original  Sound Phonemic  Phonetic Phonemes  Allophones Underlying  Surface

11 Painted 1 hour agoPainted 1 minute ago Are these paints the same colour?

12 Painted 1 day agoPainted 1 day ago Are these paints the same colour?

13 CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) [ 4][a] l ɔ ‘sore, wound’w ʊ ‘chew’ Do these words have the same underlying tone phoneme?

14 CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) [ 4][a] l ɔ ‘sore, wound’w ʊ ‘chew’ NOUNVERB Do these words have the same underlying tone phoneme? Yes, they do ǃ / 4/ (/H/)/ 4/ (/H/) l ɔ ‘sore, wound’w ʊ ‘chew’ All verbs with CV structure like w ʊ have phonetic Low-falling tone. So, both l ɔ ‘sore’ and w ʊ ‘chew’ have underlying High tone phonemes. So, only compare nouns with nouns, or verbs with verbs ǃ

15 GAAHMG Sudan [2][2] pal‘cutting’d ̪ əm‘Arab’ Do these words have the same underlying tone phoneme?

16 GAAHMG Sudan [2][2] pal‘cutting’d ̪ əm‘Arab’ VERBAL NOUNNOUN Do these words have the same underlying tone phoneme? No, they don’t ǃ / 4/(/H/)/ 3/(/M/) pal‘cutting’d ̪ əm‘Arab’ After studying Gaahmg, we would find that All verbal nouns like pal ‘cutting’ with underlying High tone phonemes have phonetic Mid tone. So, only compare nouns with nouns, or verbs with verbs ǃ

17 Important Factors for Segment Contrast in Analogous Environments GAAHMG Sudan 1.Same part of speech t - st ɛɛ ̀l‘anchor’s ɛɛ ̀n‘ruler’ 2.Same adjacent sounds d ̪ - ðc ɛ̄ d ̪ áŋ‘illness type’m ɛ ̀ða ̄ n‘youth leader’ 3.Same type of adjacent segments d - ðd ɔ d‘stork’ ɟ ááð‘old clothing’ əə - iigə̀ə̀l‘shield’ ɟ ííl‘cricket’ 4.Same syllable structure p - wpáás ɛ ̀ ɛ ̀‘basket type’wáása ̄ a ̄ ‘stone type’

18 Steps to find Tone Melody Contrasts in Analogous Environments 1. Organize the data into parts of speech CHUMBURUNG l ɔ ‘sore’ NOUNw ʊ ‘chew’ VERB 2. Separate all borrowed words LAARIM m ɔɔ l ɛ t ̪ ‘calf’ ORIGINAL pad ̪ ir ‘priest’ BORROWED 3. Separate all compounds hair ROOThairbrush COMPOUND 4. Separate all words that have affixes, or organize words according to the noun or verb class hair ROOT hair-less AFFIX CHUMBURUNG kɪ-laŋ ‘hip’ o-wure ‘chief’ 5. Organize words according to syllable structures GAAHMG kúsə́ ‘grass type’ CVCV t̪álàm ‘malnutrition’ CVCVC 6. Organize words according to consonant types (only important in languages where consonants affect tone) CHUMBURUNG kɪ-laŋ ‘hip’ NASAL kɪ-jaʔ ‘leg’ GLOTTAL

19 After separating and organizing words into analogous groups, we begin tone analysis with which group? The simplest group with the most number of words. Specifically, we want the... 1.Part of speech that has the simplest structure. 2.Class of nouns (or verbs) with the most words. 3.Words that have the fewest morphemes (roots if possible). 4.Syllable structure with the most possible places for tone to be placed (tone bearing units).

20 Begin tone analysis with the simplest group with the most number of words. Specifically, we want the... 1.Part of speech that has the simplest structure. CHUMBURUNG Nouns have a prefix to show the noun class. Verbs have a prefix to show the subject and a prefix to show the aspect (perfective, imperfective, etc). Nouns have a simpler structure and fewer morphemes to be confused. So, we begin with nouns instead of verbs.

21 Begin tone analysis with the simplest group with the most number of words. Specifically, we want the... 2.Class of nouns (or verbs) with the most words. 3.Words that have the fewest morphemes (roots if possible). Noun class prefixExample number of nouns ki-/k ɪ -/ku-/k ʊ -ki-t ͡ʃ ini ‘vein’32 out of 52 o-/ ɔ -o-wure ‘chief’9 out of 52 (No prefix)wad ͡ʒ a ‘cloth’11 out of 52 The prefix ki-/k ɪ -/ku-/k ʊ - is the most common. Nouns without a prefix might have the fewest morphemes (but they could have a tone prefix—we don’t know until we analyze them). The noun class with the most words is more important than the noun class with the fewest morphemes. So, we begin with the noun class with prefix ki-/k ɪ -/ku-/k ʊ -.

22 Begin tone analysis with the simplest group with the most number of words. Specifically, we want the... 4.Syllable structure with the most possible places for tone to be placed (tone bearing units). SyllableStructureExample number of nouns kV-CVCVk ɪ -s ɪ b ɔ ‘ear’12 out of 28 kV-CVŋk ɪ -laŋ‘hip’6 out of 28 kV-CV ʔ k ɪ -ja ʔ ‘leg’6 out of 28 kV-CVki-d ͡ʒ i‘offspring’4 out of28 The structure kV-CVCV has the most places for tone. We begin with the structure kV-CVCV. Our second choice is the structure kV-CVŋ.

23 We find the following in CHUMBURUNG Ghana (Snider) kV-CVCV has 3 contrastive tone melodies when said by themselves [2 3 3][2 2 3][4 4 p] k ɪ -s ɪ b ɔ ‘ear’ k ʊ –t ͡ʃɔ r ɪ ‘horn’ k ɪ - ɲ ap ʊ ‘breast’ k ɪ –bak ͡ pa ‘shoulder’ k ɪ –d ͡ʒ af ʊ ‘fish scale’ ki–t ͡ʃ ini ‘vein’ k ɪ – ɲ ar ɪ ‘name’ ku–kuti ‘orange’ k ɪ –f ʊ r ɪ ‘rock’ ki–feri ‘month’k ɪ –par ɪ ‘pool’ k ɪ –p ɪ n ɪ ‘mortar’ kV-CVŋ has 4 contrastive tone melodies when said by themselves [2 3] [2 i] [4 p] [2 a] ku–suŋ ‘work (n)’ k ɪ –baŋ ‘paddle’ k ɪ –laŋ ‘hip’ k ɪ –paŋ ‘cutlass’ k ɪ –laŋ ‘jug’ k ɪ –t ͡ʃ aŋ ‘room’ k ɪ –d ͡ʒ aŋ ‘hut’ We then check all the other analogous groups, looking for more than 4 tone melodies.

24 Do the following words have different underlying tone melodies (different tone phonemes)? [ 2 2 3] [2 3 3] [4 4 p] k ʊ –t ͡ʃɔ r ɪ ‘horn’ k ɪ -s ɪ b ɔ ‘ear’ k ɪ - ɲ ap ʊ ‘breast’

25 Do the following words have different underlying tone melodies (different tone phonemes)? [ 2 2 3] [2 3 3] [4 4 p] k ʊ –t ͡ʃɔ r ɪ ‘horn’ k ɪ -s ɪ b ɔ ‘ear’ k ɪ - ɲ ap ʊ ‘breast’ Yes, they do! The words have analogous environments. All the different factors that can affect tone are taken out. The differences in the above three words cannot cause the difference in their tone melodies. So, the differences in surface tone melodies must be because of the different patterns of underlying tone phonemes.

26 Class Assignmentː 1.For the Yoruba cards, take out compounds and words with affixes. Organize the remainder according to parts of speech and syllable structure. 2.Then, use the two best syllable structures from nouns and the two best syllable structures from verbs to find contrastive tone melodies. 3.List the different tone melodies for each group. Remember that á is H(igh) tone, à is L(ow) tone, and a ̄ is M(id) tone. Reading Assignment Tone Analysis for Field Linguists (2.2) pg


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