Presentation on theme: "OTA RCFC 2.0 Presented by members of POSNA"— Presentation transcript:
1OTA RCFC 2.0 Presented by members of POSNA Distal Humerus CasesOTA RCFC 2.0Presented by members of POSNA
2Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars. Dx.? Mech.? AIN out.Pink, pulseless hand.
3Supracondylar Humerus Fractures 60% of elbow fractures in children under 7.96% extension type, from fall on outstretched arm with elbow hperextension.4% flexion type, from fall on olecranon with elbow flexed.
4Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars. Class.? AIN out.Pink, pulseless hand.
5Classification-Gartland Type I: Nondisplaced, +/- posterior fat pad sign. Where is PFPS? Significance?
6Posterior Fat Pad SignPFPS is predictive of occult fracture in 76% of cases.The fracture is a supracondylar humerus about 50% of the time.Skaggs & Mirzayan, JBJS, 2001.
7Classification-Gartland Type II: Angulated with intact posterior cortex.
8Classification-Gartland Type II: Anterior humeral line anterior to middle of capitellum.
9Classification-Gartland Type III: Displaced.Usually posteromedially.
10Classification-Gartland Type IV: Multidirectional Unstable.Leitch, et al., JBJS, 2006.
12Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars. How do you do a motor exam in a child?AIN out.Pink, pulseless hand.
13Quick and Dirty Pediatric NV Exam Rock-Paper-Scissors-OKRock: Median Nv.Paper: Radial Nv.Scissors: Ulnar Nv.OK: AIN.
14Neurologic Injury Incidence: ~7%. Anterior interosseous is most common nerve injured.Decreased thumb IP and index DIP flexion.
15Neurologic Injury: Median Nv. May become entrapped in fracture.May mask compartment syndrome, because of associated forearm sensory loss.
16Neurologic Injury: Ulnar Nv. Ulnar nerve injuries more common in flexion supracondylar fractures.Often iatrogenic.Quantification of risk: “Number Needed to Harm” = 28For every 28 pts that have medial/lateral cross pinning vs lateral pins only, one child will sustain an iatrogenic ulnar nv injury.Slobogean, et al., JPO, 2010.
17Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars. What else are you worried about?AIN out.Pink, pulseless hand.
18Vascular Injury Incidence: ~1% (0.5-5%). Maintain high index of suspicion.Perform careful physical exam.
19Vascular Injury Indications for exploration: Clinically obvious ischemia (white, pulseless hand).Loss of palpable/dopplerable pulse after fracture reduction.Use of arteriography controversial.Treatment of “pink, pulseless” hand also controversial.
20Compartment Syndrome May be difficult to diagnose in kids. The Three A’s of compartment syndrome in children:Anxiety.Agitation.Increasing need for Analgesia.May occur even in open fractures.
21Case 1: 5 yo girl fell off the monkey bars. Plan? AIN out.Pink, pulseless hand.
22Treatment Gartland I: Casting in situ. Long arm cast or splint in ° flexion for 3-4 weeks.Gartland II & III: Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.
24Percutaneous PinningCrossed pins vs. Lateral: No biomechanical difference in stability if proper technique and pin placement utilized.Skaggs, et al., JBJS, 2001.Davis, et al., CORR, 2000.Hamdi, et al., JPO, 2010.Try to make the 2 lateral pins divergent.Try not to have pins cross at the fracture site.Size matters: Pins should be at least the thickness of the cortex.
37Case 2: 7 yo girl fell off monkey bars. Treatment?
38Lateral Condyle Fractures: Treatment Non-displaced fxs. can be treated with cast immobilization at 90° flexion and supination.Frequent follow-up and re-imaging is necessary, to watch for late displacement and subsequent need for operative Rx.
40Fell off monkey bars again 5 mo later. Class.? Rx.?
41Lateral Condyle Fractures: Treatment Open reduction and percutaneous pinning for displaced fractures.It is necessary to visualize the anterior joint line/articular surface prior to fixation.2-3 lateral pins:Across capitellum to medial epicondyle.At 45° angle to first pin, exiting medially and proximally.
42Lateral Condyle Fractures: Treatment Arthrogram may be helpful in determining extension into the joint and need for open reduction.
43Underwent open reduction and percutaneous pinning. Critique?
44Procedure/Positioning Patient supine on radiolucent table.C-arm comes in perpendicular, from across the table.Alternatively, hand table with C-arm coming in from the end may be used.
45Procedure/Approach Kocher Approach: Slightly curvilinear incision centered over the lateral condyle.Internervous plane between the extensor carpi ulnaris and the anconeous.Stay anterior: avoid posterior stripping in order to preserve trochlear/capitellar blood supply.Open capsule anteriorly and extend distally to radial head.
46Procedure/Reduction & Fixation Clean fragment ends.Reduce using dental pick or towel clip.2 pins placed percutaneously from posterior to incision:Across capitellum to medial epicondyle.At 45° angle to first pin, exiting medially and proximally.At least 0.062” diameter.
47Procedure/ToolsYou must see all the way to the medial side of the joint, to assess reduction at the most medial extent of the fx. Useful tools to facilitate this:Mini-Hohmanns or Chandlers.Dental Mirror.Head Lamp.
48Pearls & Pitfalls The fracture often performs the approach for you. The distal fragment may flip…be certain you have the articular cartilage oriented properly.There is sometimes lateral metaphyseal communition that appears as displacement…it is important to assess reduction at the joint line, not the metaphysis.Try to reapproximate lateral soft tissues to decrease lateral spur formation.
58Did well clinically. With full ROM and no pain bilaterally.
59Case 3: 9 yo boy injured L. elbow wrestling, 2 weeks ago. Dx.?
60Medial Epicondyle Fractures 10% of elbow fractures.Peak incidence: 9-15 years of age.Mech: Fall on extended elbow, with valgus stress.
61Medial Epicondyle Fractures Avulsion of medial epicondyle from the distal humerus by the wrist flexors.Usually a SH I or II.Can be associated with an elbow dislocation.The medial epicondyle can be entrapped in the joint.
62Medial Epicondyle Fractures Reduction maneuver to remove epicondyle from joint:valgus stress on elbow.supination of forearm.dorsiflexion of wrist and fingers.
63He had been seen by an outside MD, who got an MRI. Plan?
64Medial Epicondyle Fractures Need for reduction/fixation of epicondyle controversial:Displacement: >1cm.Angulation: >45°.Instability: +/- Stress film.Athletic ability/aspirations.Associated with elbow dislocation.? Risk of tardy ulnar nv. palsy.
65Medial Epicondyle Fractures Reduction can be closed or open.Fixation can be percutaneous or open.Fixation can be k-wires or a screw.
66Underwent ORIF.Note how far posterior the medial epicondyle is: screw oriented P to A on lat xray!