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Literary Analysis Stories are for joining the past to the future. Stories are for eternity, when memory is erased, when there is nothing to remember except.

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Presentation on theme: "Literary Analysis Stories are for joining the past to the future. Stories are for eternity, when memory is erased, when there is nothing to remember except."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literary Analysis Stories are for joining the past to the future. Stories are for eternity, when memory is erased, when there is nothing to remember except the story (38). I want you to feel what I felt. I want you to know why story-truth is truer sometimes than happening-truth (41). The Things They Carried by Tim O Brien Steps in the Process 1. Write down themes (ideas) being discussed in the story (1 or 2 words). 2. Explain, in one sentence, what the author is saying about each theme. 3. Choose one theme and find at least 6 places in the story where the idea is presented and/or developed. 4. Write an introduction paragraph (follow the directions as outlined). 5. Write three body paragraphs (follow directions for writing an 8 sentence paragraph). 6. Write a concluding paragraph (follow directions as outlined).

2 Discovering Themes To begin the process, answer the following: ( Name of the story ) is about (one or two words). Do not say what happens in the story. That is PLOT. Write down ideas the story is actually discussing. List as many as you can. Use abstract terms only (i.e. frustration, anger, love, self-acceptance) Notice that the question(s) for the essay will actually give you a clue as to what a theme of the story is. Sometimes you will be given the idea(s) upon which to write. At other times you will be expected to find the ideas by yourself.

3 Now, expand on five of the themes you identified. What does the author say ABOUT each theme you have chosen? ( Name of story) – A novels name is typed in italics or hand written and underlined. All other titles are enclosed in quotes. – is about:

4 Choose one idea from the previous slide Using the story, find at least 6 exact places where that idea is presented and/or developed. (Reasons, details, or facts) Copy each sentence you select, OR in your own words, using The Es, describe how the idea appears in that scene. (You may do either of the above but it is usually better to do both.) Note the page number at the end of the sentence and before the end punctuation. i.e. (23).

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6 Writing the Introduction Paragraph The Basic Introduction Following is a three sentence format. It is NOT REQUIREDthere are many ways to start a paper in an interesting waybut this approach is for those who panic at the sight of a blank page and need the structure of a sentence-by-sentence layout. The format looks like this: Sentence #1:all Background starts with a theme or themes from the This is a book about _____ list. Sentence #2:all Background says more about sentence #1 Sentence #3:the thesis and plan starts with In (name of the book),... and makes sense after sentences #1 and #2

7 (I think that) The social structures and values of a society can place obstacles in the path of the individuals struggle for self- awareness and self-actualization. (I also think that) Feelings of confusion, frustration, anger, and sadness may result as the protagonist toils to understand the relationship between the citizens and the government that has control over them. In name of story ( the author thinks that) In Anthem, Equality intuitively senses that there is a flaw in the political thinking and is able to escape the societal restraints even without the ability to language his understanding. There are no examples, evidence and/or explanations in this introduction. Here is an example: When typed correctly, the introduction will look like this The social structures and values of a society can place obstacles in the path of the individuals struggle for self-awareness and self-actualization. Feelings of confusion, frustration, anger, and sadness may result as the protagonist toils to understand the relationship between the citizens and the government that has control over them. In Anthem, Equality intuitively senses that there is a flaw in the political thinking and is able to escape the societal restraints even without the ability to language his understanding.

8 Now, fill in the blanks of the following sentence is a discussion about (Story) is a discussion about (Expand on the idea contained in the theme you chose from above) What thought do you have about the statement? Next, what is another thought you have about the statement? Finally, what do you think the story (and author) have to say about the idea? (This will become your Thesis Statement) (Story) is about Introduction paragraph

9 I think that: I also think that: In name of the story (the author thinks that:)

10 Note that you have been given some thinking prompts. DO NOT ever begin any sentence with I think (believe, am going to prove, etc.) that! If you wrote it, the reader will make a leap of faith and assume you thought it. It is never necessary for you to announce when there is a thought coming. The prompts are just to help you, the writer, know when the writing must come from your head and when the writing must come from the story. How to THINK through an essay If written correctly, you will always have a complete sentence even when you drop off the words I think that. Following is a body paragraph format. There are thinking prompts here also. Once again, these are to help you think through your essay. RARELY should they be used in the final draft of your paper.

11 Thesis Statement from the introductory paragraph: (just as a reminder. Do not use this sentence again in your essay) Body Paragraph one Pre-write work sheet Topic Sentence: (What part of your thesis will this paragraph explain? Subject + your thought about the subject.) Concrete Detail: (Choose one of your 6 sentences to go here) For Example:

12 Commentary: (Explain how you think the evidence or examples develop the subject stated in the Topic Sentence?) This shows that: Commentary: (Explain how you think the evidence or example develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence?) This also shows that:

13 Examples, evidence (Choose one of your 6 sentences to go here) For example: Explanation: (Explain how you think the example or evidence develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence?) This shows that: Commentary: (Explain how you think the CD develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence?) This also shows that:

14 Concluding Sentence: (All explanation. What idea has your paragraph presented? Do not simply repeat the Topic Sentence. Restate it in some new and creative way. There should also be some method of transition to the ideas of the next paragraph) For an essay of more than one body paragraph, go back and repeat the steps in slides 11 through 14 Remember! You may not reuse any important words. Use a Thesaurus to improve your vocabulary and your writing.

15 Concluding Paragraph (also called the conclusion) The last paragraph in your essay. It may: sum up your ideas, reflect on what you said in your essay, say more explanation about your subject, give a personal statement about the subject. Your conclusion is ALL personal response or reflection. It does NOT include evidence or examples. It does not reuse any important words from your paper and especially not from your thesis and introductory paragraph. It gives a finished feeling to your whole essay.

16 So, I think that (the author/name of the story) develops the idea that The useful part of this idea is that Finally, the reader will understand that


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