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An Introduction to Literary Analysis The blank boxes are “interactive” and all of MS Word is available while PowerPoint is running. There are links to.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Literary Analysis The blank boxes are “interactive” and all of MS Word is available while PowerPoint is running. There are links to."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Literary Analysis The blank boxes are “interactive” and all of MS Word is available while PowerPoint is running. There are links to a formatted Word document to allow the teacher or student direct access to the typing assignment. If the linked form is blank, click on the show/hide icon on the task bar above to reveal hidden text scaffolding.. Look for the Link box !

2 Literary Analysis 4 Questions 1.What story does the author tell? Plot (cause and effect connections of story events) 2. What does the story mean? Theme (abstract concepts discussed in the story) 3. H ow do you know? Literary Techniques (word choice, sentence structure, lit. conventions) 4. Why does the meaning matter? Personal response !

3 “Stories are for joining the past to the future. Stories are for eternity, when memory is erased, when there is nothing to remember except the story” (38). “I want you to feel what I felt. I want you to know why story-truth is truer sometimes than happening-truth” (41). The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien Steps in the process 1. Write down themes (ideas) being discussed in the story (1 or 2 words). 2. Explain, in one sentence, what the author is saying about each theme. 3. Choose one theme and find at least 6 places in the story where the idea is presented and/or developed. 4. Write an introduction paragraph (follow the directions for intro paragraph). 5. Write three (3) body paragraphs (follow the directions for writing a 2 chunk paragraph). 6. Write a concluding paragraph (follow the directions for concluding paragraph). ! LinkLink 8 sentence body paragraph

4 Discovering Themes Notice that the question(s) for the essay will actually give you a clue as to what a theme of the story may be. Sometimes you will be given the idea(s) upon which to write. At other times you will be expected to find the ideas by yourself. To begin the process, answer the following: ( Name of the story ) is about (one or two words) Do not say what happens in the story. That is PLOT. Write down ideas the story is actually discussing. List as many as you can. Use abstract terms only (i.e. frustration, revenge, self-acceptance, individuality) LinkLink To begin the process !

5 Now, expand on five of the themes you identified. What does the author say ABOUT each theme you have chosen? ( Name of story ) – A novel’s name is typed in italics or hand written and underlined. All other titles are enclosed in quotes – is about: ! Link e xpand on 5 of the themes 5

6 Choose one idea from the previous slide Using the story, find at least 6 exact places where the idea is presented and/or developed. Copy each sentence you select, OR in your own words, concretely describe how the idea appears in that scene. (You may do either of the above but it is usually better to do both.) Write the page number in parenthesis at the end of the sentence and before the end punctuation. i.e. (23). !

7 ! LinkLink choose one idea Choose one idea

8 Writing the Introduction Paragraph The Basic Introduction Following is a three sentence format. It is NOT REQUIRED—there are many ways to start a paper in an interesting way—but this approach is for those who panic at the sight of a blank page and need the structure of a sentence-by-sentence layout. The format looks like this: Sentence #1:all commentary or explanation starts with a theme or themes from the “This book is about _________” list. Sentence #2all commentary or explanation says more about sentence #1 Sentence #3thesis starts with In (name of the book), … and makes sense after sentences #1 and #2 !

9 Here is an example: (I think that) The social structures and values of a society can place obstacles in the path of the individual’s struggle for self-awareness and self-actualization. (I also think that) Feelings of confusion, frustration, anger, and sadness may arise as the protagonist toils to understand the relationship between the citizens and the government that has control over them. In the name of story (the author thinks that) In Anthem, Equality intuitively senses that there is a flaw in the political thinking and is able to escape the societal restraints even without the ability to language his understanding. There are NO concrete details in this introduction When typed correctly, the introduction will look like this The social structures and values of a society can place obstacles in the path of the individual’s struggle for self-awareness and self-actualization. Feelings of confusion, frustration, anger, and sadness may arise as the protagonist toils to understand the relationship between the citizens and the government that has control over them. In Anthem, Equality intuitively senses that there is a flaw in the political thinking and is able to escape the societal restraints even without the ability to language his understanding. !

10 Now, fill in the blanks of the following sentence: is a discussion about What thought do you have about the statement? Next, what is another thought you have about the statement? Finally, what do you think the story (and author) has to say about the idea? (This will become your Thesis Statement.) ! ! (Story) is a discussion about (Expand on the idea contained in the theme you chose from above) Introduction Paragraph (Story) is about !

11 I think that: I also think that: In (name of the story) the author thinks that: LinkLink 2 Hidden text intro paragraph Link Link 1 writing a thesis statement ! ! ! Topic Sentence Construction

12 How to “Think” through an essay Note that you have been given some “thinking” prompts. DO NOT ever begin any sentence with “I think (believe, am going to prove, etc.) that”! If you wrote it, the reader will make a “leap of faith” and assume “you thought” it. It is never necessary for you to announce when there is a thought coming. The prompts are just to help you, the writer, know when the writing must come from your mind and when the writing must come from the story. If written correctly, you will always have a complete sentence, even when you drop off the words “I think that”. Following is a “body paragraph” format. There are “thinking” prompts here also. Once again, these are to HELP YOU “think through” your essay. RARELY should they be used in the final draft of your paper. !

13 Thesis Statement from the introductory paragraph: (just as a reminder. Do not use this sentence again in your essay) Body Paragraph on Pre-write work sheet Topic Sentence: (What part of your thesis will this paragraph explain? Subject + commentary (your thought) about the subject.) Concrete Detail: (Choose one of your 6 sentences to go here) For Example: ! ! !

14 Commentary: (Explain how you think the CD develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence.) This shows that: ! Commentary: (Explain how you think the CD develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence) This also shows that: LinkLink Body Paragraph 1

15 Concrete Detail: (Choose one of your 6 sentences to go here) For example: Commentary: (Explain how you think the CD develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence) This shows that: Commentary: (Explain how you think the CD develops the subject stated in the Topic Sentence) This also shows that: ! ! ! LinkLink Body Paragraph 1

16 Concluding Sentence: (All commentary (CM). What ideas has your paragraph presented? Do not simply repeat the Topic Sentence. Restate it in some new and creative way. There should also be some method of transition to the ideas of the next paragraph) For an essay of more than one body paragraph, go back and repeat the steps in Slides 11 through 14. Remember! You may not repeat any KEY words. Use a Thesaurus to improve your vocabulary and your writing. LinkLink Body Paragraph 1 ! !

17 Concluding Paragraph (also called the conclusion) The last paragraph in your essay. It may: SSum up your ideas, RReflect on what you have said in your essay, SSay more commentary (CM) about your subject, GGive a personal statement about the subject. Your conclusion is ALL commentary (CM). IIt does NOT include Concrete Detail (CD). IIt does not repeat KEY words from your paper and especially not from your thesis and introductory paragraph. IIt gives a finished feeling to your whole essay. !

18 So, I think that (the author/name of story) develops the idea that: The useful part of the ideas is that: Finally, the reader will understand that: ! ! ! LinkLink Concluding paragraph

19 The End and The Beginning


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