Presentation on theme: "The Gospel According to John. John’s Gospel In the Synoptics, Jesus is a healer whose teachings deal primarily with Torah reinterpretation. John describes."— Presentation transcript:
John’s Gospel In the Synoptics, Jesus is a healer whose teachings deal primarily with Torah reinterpretation. John describes Jesus as a n embodiment of heavenly Wisdom who performs no exorcism and whose message centers on his own divine nature. Jesus is the human form of God’s celestial Word To John, Jesus’ crucifixion is not a humiliating ordeal (as mark characterizes it) But a glorification that frees Jesus to return to heaven. Rather than emphasizing the second coming, it argues that the risen Christ is eternally present in the invisible form of a surrogate, the Holy Spirit which continues to inspire and direct the believing community.
Four Divisions of John 1.prologue Chapter 1 2.Book of Signs recounting seven miraculous deeds (2:1-11:57) 3.The book of Glory. A reinterpretation of the Passion (12:1-20:31) 4.Epilogue 21:1-25
Date and Place of composition Tradition says it was written in Ephesus, and that is possible, though other places have been proposed. The gospel mentions Christian believers being expelled by synagogues (9:22, 34-35) and this process didn’t happen until around 85-90 CE. This suggests that the decisive break between the church and the synagogue was already in effect when the Gospel was written. Also, it couldn’t have been too late because fragments from John’s gospel have been found in Northern Egypt and dated at about 125-150CE. For the Gospel to have spread that far by that time, it must have been composed earlier. For these reasons, it’s usually dates about 90-100 CE.
St John Fragment A fragment of the fourth gospel Fragment of St. John's gospel. This small fragment of St John's Gospel, less than nine centimetres high and containing on the one side part of verses 18:31-33, on the other of verses 18:37-38 of chapter xviii. It was originally discovered in Egypt and dated in the first half of the second century A.D., making it the earliest known fragment of the New Testament in any language. It provides valuable evidence of the spread of Christianity in areas distant from the land of its origin; it is particularly interesting to know that among the books read by the early Christians in Upper Egypt was St John's Gospel, commonly regarded as one of the latest of the books of the New Testament.
The Writer Tradition says it was written by Jesus’ disciple John, brother of James at Ephesus. The same one believed to have written 1, 2, and 3 John and Revelation. This is unlikely because it was written late and because the John is never identified as the author within the tesxt. Author likes to present spiritual contrasts: light- dark, spirit-of-error vs. spirit-of-truth. Chapter 21 was probably added later by an editor.
The One Whom Jesus Loved The “Beloved” disciple. Early traditions say this was John, but this disciple is never named. Given credit as author (21:23-24) Leaned on Jesus’ breast (13:23) Asks Jesus Peter’s question about who will betray him. He was acquainted with the high priest (18:15-18) He is only male disciple at the crucifixion and is entrusted with caring for Jesus’ mother, making him like Jesus’ brother. (19:26-27) He outran Peter going to the tomb (20:2-10) Rumored that he wouldn’t die (21:20-22)
Differences in John’s Portrait of Jesus 1 No birth story or virgin birth Emphasis on Jesus’ spiritual origin; he is the eternal “logos” word of God become flesh making his manner of conception is irrelevant 2 No record of baptismJesus’ independence and superiority to John the Baptist is emphasized 3 No time of temptation in the desert John’s Jesus is so unified with the Father that worldly temptation seems impossible 4 No exorcismsJesus overcomes evil through his personal revelation of divine truth rather than through the casting out of demons (Mk & Mt especially)
Differences in John’s Portrait of Jesus 5 Never devalued by family or friends There is a little friction between Jesus and his brothers (7:1-6). Otherwise, he meets lots of opposition, but his character is too commanding to be devalued by anyone. 6 No short parables of the synoptic type. Rather than homely images of agriculture or domestic life, Jesus gives long philosophical speeches often focusing on his own nature. He does this both publicly and privately in Galilee and Jerusalem. 7 No reinterpretations of Mosaic Law There is a focus on only one new commandment—to love. True love is the sole distinguishing mark of a true believer. 8 No prediction of Jerusalem's fall
Differences in John’s Portrait of Jesus 9 No prophecies of Jesus imminent return. No prophecies about signs of the coming of the end. Only two references to Jesus “eventual” return. Jesus is already present among believers as the Holy Spirit who is Helper, Comforter, and Advocate (14:25-26, 16:7-15). To John, Jesus first coming means that believers have life now (5:12-26; 11:25-27). Divine judgment is a current reality, not just a future event. 10 No Last supper ritual.Instead, on the last night before his death, Jesus washes his disciple’s feet (13:1-16). 11 No agony before his death in Garden of Gethsemane Jesus remains calm and his death is his glorification. His final words are not a cry of despair as in Mark, but a pronouncement “It is finished” that his life’s work is accomplished. 12 The writing does not supplement or build on earlier narratives. The choice of material to include seems to be determined only by the writer’s special concerns (20:30-31; 21:25).
Wedding at Cana This painting by Giotto John 2:1-11) This is the first of Jesus' "signs" performed in the Gospel of John. the crowd at the wedding gathered around a table, while the steward drinks the wine. He obviously loves the delicious taste of the wine and is a connoisseur of sorts, evident by his large belly.
Jesus cleanses the temple In John’s gospel Jesus is the New Temple/Tabernacle, He is the fulfillment of God’s promises to dwell among his people (cf. Exod 25:8, 29:45-46). Jesus is the New Temple/Tabernacle of God who lifts up Israel in a radical way: Jews and Gentiles together become as one body, the body of the Crucified and Risen Christ.
Healing of the Man Born Blind By El Greco John 9:1-41, where Jesus comes across a man who has been born without sight. Jesus disciples question whether the man himself or his parents are to blame for his condition. Jesus responds, "Neither, he was born blind so that God's works may be revealed to him" (9:3). This painting portrays Jesus in the act of performing the miracle, the critical moment when Jesus applies mud to the man's eye. It is not obvious in this depiction, however, that Jesus has used spit to cure the man's blindness; only that he has touched him.
Washing the Disciples’ Feet By Duccio John 13:1-20. Similar to the Synoptic Last Supper –Eve of Jesus' death and also that –Jesus becomes aware that Judas Iscariot will betray him. When Simon Peter hesitates Jesus urges him that it is vital to his faith: "Unless I wash you, you have no share with me" (13:8). Afterwards, Peter begs Jesus to wash his head and hands as well. Jesus however tell him this is not necessary, for the rest of him is clean. This painting portrays the moment when Jesus begins to cleanse Peter's foot and Peter expresses his anxiety over the bathing. Peter points to his head wanting that washed too.
Raising of Lazarus By Gozzoli John 11:1-44. (especially 44) Jesus commands Lazarus to "come out." This occasion occurs shortly after Jesus tells Lazarus' sister Martha that "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live, and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die" (11:25-27). This miracle shows explicit evidence to Martha and Mary (and other people present at the scene) that Jesus truly is the Messiah, the Son of God. Lazarus had been dead for four days and Jesus brought him back to life. This painting portrays Lazarus emerging from the cave, bound up in strips of cloth. The two sisters kneel before Jesus in reverence and awe.
Crucifixion By Raphael John 19:31-37. Only in John is Jesus side pierced. Raphael depicts two angels holding cups to catch Jesus' spilled blood. Another significant element of this painting is that Jesus' legs are in a natural position, evidence that they have not been broken. Also note the presence of Mary and "the disciple whom he loved." They kneel in close to the crucified Jesus while Mary Magdalene and Mary of Clopas mourn in the background.
Doubting Thomas The situation emphasizes the value of faith without having to experience Jesus yourself.
A different order of events The SynopticsJohn 1 Jesus mainly works in Galilee and comes to Judea only in his last days Jesus travels back and forth between Judea (Jerusalem) and Galilee often during his ministry. 2 Assault on the temple comes at the end of Jesus’ career. Assault of the temple comes at the beginning of Jesus’ career (2:13-21) 3 Jesus began his ministry after John the Baptist’s imprisonment Their ministries overlapped 4 Only mention one Passover and imply that Jesus’ ministry lasted about one year Three Passovers are mentioned (2:13, 6:4, 11:55) thereby making Jesus’ ministry 3-4 years. 5 Last supper is presented as a Passover celebration Final meal with disciples occurs on the evening before Passover. The Crucifixion happens on the day when the Passover lamb was slaughtered.