2 Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1 Introduction: Prologue and Witness of JohnCh Jesus Before the World ("Book of Signs")Theme: Through signs and discourses, Jesus reveals himself as the Son of God, sent to save the world, but is rejected by the world.Ch. 2-4 Images of New SalvationCh Growing hostilityCh Final rejectionCh Jesus Before the Disciples ("Book of Passion/Glory")Theme: Having been rejected by the world, Jesus prepares the disciples for his departure to the Father.Ch. 13 Last SupperCh Farewell DiscourseCh. 17 Jesus’ “High Priestly” PrayerCh Passion NarrativeCh. 20 ResurrectionCh. 21 Appendix: Appearance in Galilee
3 John 13 The Last Supper Similarities to Synoptics In Jerusalem, during Passover week on Thursday night before crucifixion.Jesus predicts his betrayal.Interprets significance of his death.Differences from SynopticsNot a Passover meal (Jn’s chronology has Passover eaten Friday night).Synoptic chronology: Lord’s Supper replaces Passover.Johannine chronology: Jesus dies as true Passover lamb.No “institution” of Lord’s Supper (no “Eucharistic words”).Has foot-washing scene and lengthy discourse not found in Synoptics.
4 13:1-38 The Last Supper Washing the disciples’ feet (v. 1-20). Setting (v. 1-2)Announcement that Jesus’ “hour” had arrived.Announcement that Jesus loved “his own” to the end.Announcement that Judas will betray him.Gathering of disciples for “supper”: not called Passover; vague about place and who was present.Jesus washes the disciples’ feet (v. 3-5)Foot-washing customs: common practice; normally job of slaves/servants.Jesus stoops to role of slave – subverts social roles of superior and inferior.
5 13:1-38 The Last Supper Washing the disciples’ feet (v. 1-20) – cont. c. First interpretation: foot-washing symbolizes Jesus’ death (v. 6-11).Dialogue with Peter is full of allusions to Jesus’ death:Words for “taking off” (v. 4) and “putting on” (v. 12) his robe are same as for “laying down” and “taking up” his life (10:18).Peter objects to role reversal (v. 6, 8), as he objects to Passion Prediction (Mk. 8:32-33).Only “later” will Peter understand what Jesus is doing (v. 7).Jesus’ washing is essential to share his heritage (eternal life)(v. 8).Jesus’ action cleanses them entirely (from sin)(v. 9-10).“Except for the feet” (v. 10) is textually questionable.Perhaps added by later scribe who didn’t understand symbolism.Foot-washing symbolizes Jesus’ death on behalf of disciples and (perhaps) baptism which appropriates the benefits of that death.Jesus’ humbling himself as servant symbolizes supreme humiliation on Cross.Functions to wash disciples clean from sin.d. Second interpretation: foot-washing is example for disciples (v ).Disciples should serve one another as Jesus has served them.“Servants are not greater than their master” (v. 16; cf. Mt. 10:24).Disciples are “servants” who serve, love, and lay down lives for one another.
6 13:1-38 The Last Supper Prediction of Judas’ betrayal (v. 21-30). Already alluded to three times (v. 2, 10-11, 18-19); now announced directly.First mention of “Beloved Disciple” – “reclining in Jesus’ bosom.”Jesus’ dipping bread and handing to Judas is act of friendship that puts Judas on the spot.Judas receives bread and goes out into the night (symbolic of darkness apart from light of Jesus?).Introduction to the “Farewell Discourse” (v ).“Glorification” of Jesus (v. 31).Paradoxically, “glorified” in humiliation of Cross (cf. “lifted up”).Set in motion by betrayal.Departure of Jesus: “I am with you only a little longer” (v. 33).“New commandment” = “love one another as I have loved you” (v. 34).Latin for “commandment” is mandatum; corrupted into maundy; gave name to “Maundy Thursday.”In Jn., Jesus commands love only within the community (cf. Qumran).Disciples’ witness to world through loving one another (v. 35).Prediction of Peter’s denial (v ).